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Transcript of Russian Revolution
The Mensheviks (Whites)– wanted a broad base of popular support for the revolution - Moderates - some change
Bolsheviks (Reds) – supported a small number of committed revolutionaries willing to sacrifice everything for radical change - Radicals
The Bolsheviks were a small faction of a Marxist party.
Led by Vladimir Lenin
The Bolsheviks promised to
End the war
Redistribute land to the peasants
Transfer control of factories and industries from capitalists to the workers
Transfer government power to the soviets (workers local councils).
"Peace, Land, Bread"
People Romanovs - The Romanov Dynasty (1613 to 1917) was the last imperial dynasty to rule Russia. Russian Revolution Social Structure (Classses)
Gap between rich and poor was enormous
Majority of people were peasants - lived in poverty
Middle and working class developed under industrialization World War I Russia was unprepared for World War I
•Lacked experienced military leaders and technology
•The Russian army was poorly trained and equipped and suffered terrible losses.
•In 1 year more than 4 million Russians were killed or wounded
•Revealed the weaknesses of czarist rule and military leadership
•By 1917, the Russian will to continue fighting in the war had disappeared.
Major Events End of The Romanov Dynasty Nicholas II - son of Alexander III – continued the policy of autocracy ignoring the changing conditions in Russia. Pushed to industrialize Russia. Rasputin - "The Mad Monk" - Claimed to be a holy man
Strongly influenced Czarina Alexandra
He made key political decisions
Obtained powerful positions for his friends
Spread corruption throughout the royal court Lenin
Dedicated to a violent revolution to overthrow the capitalist system (Marxism)
Lenin lived in Switzerland between 1900 and 1917.When the provisional government was formed.
German military leaders helped him travel to Russia in an attempt to create disorder and weaken provisional government.
Karl Marx - Communist Manifesto
Marx described communism as a form of complete socialism in which the means of production-all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses-would be owned by the people.
Private property would in effect cease to exist. All goods and services would be shared equally
The basis for the Bolsheviks ideals.
Lenin dies in 1924 after a series of paralyzing strokesStalin
Stalin’s rule proved to be one of the most brutal and ruthless dictatorships in modern history
He builds a totalitarian state
One party dictatorship
Attempts to control every aspect of the lives of its citizens
The Communists won the civil war in part because they had an excellent army.
Leon Trotsky -commissar of war-brilliantly organized the army and instituted rigid discipline.
Cheka - Communist secret police who sought out anyone who opposed their goals - creating an atmosphere of fear Proletariat - workers who Marx said would overthrow the capitalist system Duma - Russian Parliment
Was established and dissolved several times when they wanted a constitutional monarchy that would limit Czar Nicholas’ power
Working Conditions -
Rapid industrialization stirs discontent among the people
Grueling working conditions
Low wages, Child labor, Trade unions outlawed
Poor standard of living
Little political power
Gap between rich and poor was enormous
Peace, Land, and Bread
End the war
Redistribute the land to the peasants
Food. New Economic Policy - Lenins ecomomic plan which allowed some capitalism
Small businesses were allowed to open for profit
Food and industrial production increased greatly •The Russian people became increasingly upset with the czar and his wife due to military and economic disasters. He was assassinated Rasputin late in 1916 Rasputin's body, poisoned, shot four times, badly beaten, and drowned, was recovered from the Neva River.
An autopsy established that the cause of death was drowning. Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov - "Lenin" PEOPLE MAJOR GROUPS SOCIETAL PROBLEMS WORLD WAR I MAJOR EVENTS COMMUNIST
PLANS Felix Dzerzhinsky November Revolution March Revolution In March 1917 (March Revolution), working-class women led a series of strikes in the capital city of Petrograd.
Upset about bread and fuel shortages and rationing
War was destroying morale
Food and fuel supplies were dwindling at home
Prices were inflated
They called a general strike that shut down all the factories.
200,000 workers swarmed the streets“Down with the autocracy “Down with the war”
Alexandra and Nicholas, ordered troops to break up the crowds with force.
Many soldiers refused to shoot and joined the demonstrators.
On March 12, the Duma, or legislature, met and established a provisional government led by Alexander Kerensky.
The government then urged the czar to step down, which he did The Bolsheviks Seize PowerBy the end of October, 1917, the Bolsheviks had 240,000 membersHeld majorities in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets.On November 6, the Bolsheviks seized the Winter PalaceThe provisional government collapsed.The Bolsheviks renamed themselves the Communists.In March of 1918, Lenin ended the war with Germany, giving up a lot of territory - Treaty of Brest Litovsk The Communists won the civil war in part because they had an excellent army.
The opposition to the Communists was not unified and was tom by political differences and mistrust. They lacked a common goal.
The Communists had a strong sense of purpose and conviction.
They were also able to put their ideals to work in practical ways - by controlling banks, farms, and industries to serve the Communist war effort, a policy known as war communism.
The Communists also used revolutionary terror to further their goals
The Cheka, or secret police, sought out anyone who opposed the Communists and created an atmosphere of fear among the people.y 1921, the Communists had complete control of Russia.
The country had become a centralized state dominated by a single party