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How Permanent are Permanent Markers?

Science experiment exploring how various surfaces and substances effect permanent ink.
by

Rayelle Kushner

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of How Permanent are Permanent Markers?

Purpose The purpose of this experiment is that knowing which solvent will remove the permanent ink. People were wondering how can ink be removed and which solvent will remove the ink the best. Since people use different cleaning agents around there house to remove the ink but many of the solvents that are used may not have any effect. Scientist can experiment by testing which solvent will remove the ink and which one works the best. Rayelle Kushner
7th grade
Ms. Willard How Permanent are Permanent Markers? Hypothesis My hypothesis is that if you use rubbing alcohol then it will remove the permanent ink. Alcohol removes nail polish off of your nails and I think it will work the same with the permanent ink as it does with the nail polish. Background Research Baking Soda. How Products are Made. nd.
1. Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/volume-1/baking-soda.html>. my science experiment is on how permanent are permanent markers. By using four materials I've gathered for this project to show which material will remove the ink. The reason why I've chosen to do this project is because I have seen other people on the internet and on T.V so I decided that I would give it a try. Background Research Bleach. How Products are Made. nd. 2
Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/volume-2/bleach.html>. Background Research How to Remove Permanent Marker Ink. EHow.com. nd. Web
Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/how_4746407
_permanent-marker-ink-sharpie-sharpee.html>. Background Research The Manufacturing Process. Made How.com. nd. 3. Web
November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/Volume-
3/Marker.html>. Background Research Chen, Y. What is Vinegar. Wise Geek. 2003. Web. November
17, 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-vinegar.htm>. I've learned that baking soda is a chemical called soda that is made by different products put together . Baking soda is used in things like Tidy cats and arm and hammer. I also learned that baking soda is made from a machine under ground that makes the baking soda into a chemical. I've learned that bleach is used for cleaning out tough stains and fabrics. In the middle age, the Romans used seaweed as an cleaning cloth and they used clofing to clean their clothing. I also learned that bleach can damage your clothes such as fabrics that are dark colored and can never come out once it's on. I've learned that to remove permanent ink (sharpie) by using rubbing alcohol and a water mix in a bottle. When using this mix you would first spray the area until it's wet. Then you would rub the area until it was clean. Permanent ink is made with water, dye, and a solvent. What makes it permanent ink is the type of dye that they use. I've learned that by using different colored dyes makes different color ink. I learned that vinegar is made for fermentation of ethanol. The key ingredient that gives it an acidic taste is acetic acid. Vinegar is also used to pickle things. Experimental design Variables The variables in my experiment were:
constant variable: bleach, baking soda, vinegar, and rubbing alcohol.
Dependent variable: Bic permanent marker and sharpie permanent marker
Independent variable: dry erase board(non-porous),plastic cutting board(porous) Materials Bic permanent marker
sharpie permanent marker
bleach
vinegar
baking soda
rubbing alcohol
dry erase board
plastic cutting board Procedure organize the two boards and make two lines separating them
use rubbing alcohol and scrub the line five times do the same with the other board
use vinegar and scrub the line five times on both lines
use bleach next and scrub both lines of the board five times
use baking soda and scrub both surfaces of the board five times
and then you have your results Results The results were that alcohol removes the permanent ink and my hypothesis was correct that alcohol removes the ink just like it does with nail polish. The results were not surprising because I learned that the alcohol is made of chemicals that will break down the ink. The alcohol worked better on the non_ porous board then the porous board because the porous board has a hard rough surface for the alcohol to remove the ink while the non_porous board has an flat surface and its easier for the ink to get removed. Data Analysis observation of results Bibliography Baking Soda. How Products are Made. nd.
1. Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/volume-1/baking-soda.html>.

Bleach. How Products are Made. nd. 2
Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/volume-2/bleach.html>.

How to Remove Permanent Marker Ink. EHow.com. nd. Web
Web. November 17, 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/how_4746407
_permanent-marker-ink-sharpie-sharpee.html>.

The Manufacturing Process. Made How.com. nd. 3. Web
November 17, 2012. <http://www.madehow.com/Volume-
3/Marker.html>.

Chen, Y. What is Vinegar. Wise Geek. 2003. Web. November
17, 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-vinegar.htm>. Conclusion My major results were that alcohol worked the best on the non_porous board. My results matched with my hypnosis and that the results are correct. I compared the results by testing which of the boards will remove the ink more easily and which one doesn't with the materials I've chosen to experiment. The alcohol wipes remove the permanent marker the best because alcohol is made with chemicals and permanent marker is made with colored ink. There were no errors in the results with the experiment. I would improve the experiment by like using some other products and testing to see if they remove the ink as well as the alcohol did. Further experiments on other household products could be doneto see if the product will remove the ink and which one works the best and which one does not.
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