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Brief (Rhetorical) History of the World
Transcript of Brief (Rhetorical) History of the World
? BC - 476A.D.
(In Standard Periods)
c. 476 - 1517
Rise of the Church
Loss of democratic spirit
c. 1600 - 1800
1950 - now
Luther's 95 Theses
Rhetoric is . . . "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion"
Logic / Rationality
Foundation of Rhetoric
Science = Truth
Truth = Bible
First teachers of rhetoric
True knowledge is unobtainable
You can argue any side
True knowledge IS obtainable
Wrote the Socratic Dialogues
"The good man speaking well"
1. Defend Truth
2. Protect the Innocent
3. Prevent Criminal Behavior
4. Inspire the Military
5. Inspire the Public
Knowledge which is the product of human senses
True knowledge -- the product of philosophical inquiry
Spread of Christianity
Amorality of rhetoric
Speaking to Inform
Persuasive Speaking in a
Concerned with "motives"
Man as the
"A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B... In being identified with B, A is 'substantially one' with a person other than himself."
...Rhetoric as identification implies that one person can persuade another “only insofar as you can talk his [sic] language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying your ways with his.”
-A Rhetotic of Motives (pp. 20-21).
Strategies for Identification
Definition of Man:
symbol using (making, misusing) animal
inventor of the negative (moralizes)
separated from natural condition by instruments of his own making.
rotten with perfection.
goaded by the spirit of hierarchy (moved by order)
"I think, therefore I am"
Knowledge determined by sensory experience
The statement being argued
The general, hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve as bridges between the
claim and the data.
Statements that limit the strength of the argument or statements that propose the conditions under which the argument is true.
Counter-arguments or statements indicating circumstances when the general argument does not hold true.
Statements that serve to support the warrants (i.e., arguments that don't necessarily prove the main point being argued, but which do prove the warrants are true.)
The facts or evidence used to
prove the argument
Congress should ban
Animals are tortured in experiments
that have no necessary benefit for humans
such as the testing of cosmetics
The well being of
animals is more important
than the profits of the cosmetics industry
Only congress has the authority to make such a law (Warrant) because the corporations can simply move from state to state to avoid legal penalties.
Of course, this ban should not
apply to medical research
A law to ban all research
would go too far
It is our responsibility to care for animals
Toulmin's Model of Argument
The ideal speaker...
But Quintilian, wtf is
We are beset by choices and temptations. We are haunted by shadows of fear. We listen to speakers, then, because we hope they will throw light on our problems, temptations, and fears.
We listen because we hope they will give us new information, new ideas, or will simply water and cultivate old ideas. We listen because we want to be given encouragement, to renew our faith, to strengthen our determination.”
William Brigance – WWI Vet