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Brief (Rhetorical) History of the World

Content I use for my Honors Public Speaking Course at UNLV.
by

Daniel Coyle

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of Brief (Rhetorical) History of the World

A Brief History of the World
Classical Antiquity
? BC - 476A.D.
Medieval Period
(In Standard Periods)
c. 476 - 1517
Rise of the Church
Monarchy
Loss of democratic spirit
Constatine
(Rhetoric declines)
Renaissance
c. 1300-1600
Enlightenment
Post-Modern
Period...?

1800 -1950
c. 1600 - 1800
1950 - now
Protestant
Reformation
Luther's 95 Theses
Florence, Italy
Art
Science
Music
Philosophy
Music
Political Upheaval
Modern Period
Plato
Aristotle
~375 BC
Rhetoric is . . . "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion"
Pathos
Ethos
Logos
Persuasive
Appeals
Emotions
Logic / Rationality
Credibility
Cicero
~350 BC
~55 BC
Foundation of Rhetoric
Democracy
Roman Empire
Ancient Greece
Machine Age
Productivity
Irony
Subjectivity
Science = Truth
Truth = Bible
Aristotle
Plato
The Sophists
~400 BC
First teachers of rhetoric
True knowledge is unobtainable
Gorgias
Isocrates
Protagoras
You can argue any side
True knowledge IS obtainable
Socrates
Wrote the Socratic Dialogues
Philosopher extraordinaire
Senses deceive
Quintilian
~80 AD
"The good man speaking well"
1. Defend Truth
2. Protect the Innocent
3. Prevent Criminal Behavior
4. Inspire the Military
5. Inspire the Public
Civic Engagement
Truth???
Doxa
Episteme
VS.
Knowledge which is the product of human senses
Unreliable
True knowledge -- the product of philosophical inquiry
The Industrial
Revolution
Information Age
Rejecting modernity
St. Augustine
~400 A.D.
Emperor Constatine
Spread of Christianity
Early 300s
Amorality of rhetoric
Canons of Rhetoric
1. Invention
2. Arrangement
4. Memory
5. Delivery
3. Style
Developing
Significant Topics
Productive
Research
Supporting
Your Ideas
5
6
7
Organizing
Your Speech
Outlining
Your Speech
8
9
Using Language
Effectively
Diverse
Audiences
10
4
Delivery
Supporting Your
Ideas Visually
11
12
Speaking to Inform
13
14
Persuasive Speaking in a
Democratic Society
Arguing Persiasuvely
15
16
Speaking on
Special Occasions
(Outline of our Semester)
Rhetorical
Kenneth Burke
Concerned with "motives"
Identification
Dramatism
Man as the
"symbol-using animal"
"A is not identical with his colleague, B. But insofar as their interests are joined, A is identified with B... In being identified with B, A is 'substantially one' with a person other than himself."

...Rhetoric as identification implies that one person can persuade another “only insofar as you can talk his [sic] language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, identifying your ways with his.”

-A Rhetotic of Motives (pp. 20-21).
A
B
Strategies for Identification
Formal appeal
Antithesis
Assumed "we"
~1940s-1960s
Definition of Man:
1
symbol using (making, misusing) animal
2
inventor of the negative (moralizes)
3
separated from natural condition by instruments of his own making.
5
rotten with perfection.
4
goaded by the spirit of hierarchy (moved by order)
Western
"I think, therefore I am"
Rene Descartes
John Locke
Knowledge determined by sensory experience
Empiricism
Liberalism
"tabula rasa"
empty mind
Immanuel Kant
Claim
Data
Warrant
Backing
Qualifyer
Rebuttal
The statement being argued
The general, hypothetical (and often implicit) logical statements that serve as bridges between the
claim and the data.
Statements that limit the strength of the argument or statements that propose the conditions under which the argument is true.
Counter-arguments or statements indicating circumstances when the general argument does not hold true.
Statements that serve to support the warrants (i.e., arguments that don't necessarily prove the main point being argued, but which do prove the warrants are true.)
The facts or evidence used to
prove the argument
Congress should ban
animal research
Animals are tortured in experiments
that have no necessary benefit for humans
such as the testing of cosmetics
The well being of
animals is more important
than the profits of the cosmetics industry
Only congress has the authority to make such a law (Warrant) because the corporations can simply move from state to state to avoid legal penalties.
Of course, this ban should not
apply to medical research
A law to ban all research
would go too far
(Reasoning)
(Evidence)
It is our responsibility to care for animals
(Thesis)
Toulmin's Model of Argument
Stephen Toulmin
~1950s-80s
The ideal speaker...
Dos
Don'ts
But Quintilian, wtf is
"Ethical Communication"
in 2013?
Full transcript