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Copy of My Project
Transcript of Copy of My Project
Why Good Mechanics?
Use commas after an introductory phrase or sentence
Ex.) "When Irwin was ready to iron
his cat tripped on the extension cord."
Do not use commas when:
Before the first item in a series
Use semicolons with independent clauses.
A coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) signals the relation between clauses.
Use an apostrophe to indicate that a noun or an indefinite pronoun is possessive. The possessive form of a noun or an indefinite pronoun usually indicates ownership.
Common Misuses of the Apostrophe
Do not use apostrophe when:
Using correct punctuation and mechanics can solve the mystery of who is responsible for actions and ideas.
Semicolon and colon
Exception: Comma may be omitted after a short adverb clause.
Ex.) "In no time we were at 2,800 feet.
Use commas to distinguish nonrestrictive/restrictive elements .
Defines or limits meaning of word and modifies
Ex.) The camper needs clothes that are durable.
Defines noun/pronoun in which meaning has already been clearly defined
Ex.) The campers need sturdy shoes, that are expensive.
Ex.) Other causes of asthmatic attacks are
stress, change in temperature
and cold air.
To set off restrictive or mildly parenthetical elements
who think they own the road
make cycling a dangerous sport.
When the comma sets off a concluding adverb clause that is essential to the meaning of a sentence.
Ex.) Don't visit Paris at the height of the tourist season
unless you have booked hotel reservations.
Ex.) In 1800, a traveler needed six weeks to get from New York City to Chicago; in 1860, the trip by railroad took as little as two days.
Use a colon after an independent clause to direct attention to a list, a question, or an explanation.
Ex.) My roommate is guilty of two of the seven deadly sins
gluttony and sloth.
A colon must be preceded by an independent clause.
The heart's two pumps each consist
of an upper chamber, or atrium, and a lower chamber, or ventricle.
When to add -'s to a noun:
1. If the noun does not end is -s, add -'s.
2. If the noun is singular and ends in -s or an s sound, add -'s.
Use an apostrophe to mark omissions in contractions and numbers.
Ex.) It's a shame that Frank can
t go on the tour.
Ex. The class of
Do not pluralize of abbreviations.
Harriet has thirty DVD
s on her desk.
Marco earned two PHD
Forming the plural or words mentioned as words
Ex.) We've heard enough maybes.
Exception: We've heard enough "maybe's."
When nouns are not possessive.
Ex.) Some outpatient
s have special parking permits.
In possessive pronouns its, whose, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs
Ex.) Each area has it
s own conference room.
When typing, use two hyphens to form a dash (--).
A dash can be used to set off parenthetical material that deserves emphasis.
Ex.) Everything that went wrong
from the peeping Tom at Theodora's window last night to my head-on collision today--we blamed on our move.
Ex.) In my hometown, the basic needs of people
food, clothing, and shelter
are less costly than in a big city like Los Angeles.
A dash is an informal way to introduce a list, a restatement, an amplification, or a striking shift in a tone or thought.
Ex.) Along the wall are bunk liquids
sesame seed oil, honey, safflower oil, and that half-liquid "peanuts only" peanut butter.
Use Parentheses to enclose a supplemental material, minor digressions, and afterthoughts.
Ex.) Nurses record patients' vital signs
temperature, pulse, and blood pressure
several times a day.
Use parentheses to enclose letters or numbers labeling items in a series.
Ex.) Regulations stipulated that only the following equipment could be used on the survival mission:
thirty feet of parachute line,
a book of matches.
Tip: Do not overuse parentheses. We beg you.
Use brackets to enclose any words or phrases that you have inserted into an otherwise word-for-word quotation.
Ex.) Audubon reports that "if there are not enough young to balance deaths, the end of the species
is inevitable" (4).
The Latin word "sic" in brackets indicates that an error in a quoted sentence appears in the original source.
Ex.) According to the review, Nelly Furtado's performance was brilliant, "exceeding
the expectations of even her most loyal fans."
Tip: Do not overuse "sic," however, since calling attention to others' mistakes is snobbish.
The Ellipsis Mark
The ellipsis mark consists of three spaced periods. Use an ellipsis mark to indicate that you have deleted words from an otherwise word-for-word quotation .
Ex.) Reuben reports that "when the amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood rises over
. . .
300 milligrams per 100, the chances of a heart attack decrease dramatically."
If you delete a full sentence or more in the middle of a quoted passage, use a period before the three ellipsis dots.
Ex.) "Most of our efforts," writes Dave Erikson, " are directed toward saving the bald eagle's wintering habitat along the Mississippi River
. . . .
It's important that they have a home."
Tip: Ordinarily, do not use an ellipsis mark at the beginning or end of a quotation.
Knowing how to pace sentences and separate information can clarify instructions and correct common mistakes.
A pair of dashes is useful to enclose an appositive that contains commas.