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Copy of AP Human Geography: Urbanization (Ch 13)

AP Human Geography: Rubenstein Text

Eric Gunderson

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of AP Human Geography: Urbanization (Ch 13)

Key Issue 1: Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?
Central Business Districts
CBD Land Uses
Land Competition
CBDs Outside N.A.
Key Issue 2: Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?
Models of Uban Structure
Applying the Models Outside N.A.
Concentric Zone Model (1923)
Sector Model (1939)
Multiple Nuclei Model (1945)
European Cities
Less suburbanization (Wealthy urban residents still in the core)
Early verticle social segregation - Today, low income residents reside on the urban outskirts (suburbs).
Long, expensive "public transit" commute
Poor Schools, Poor Shopping/Culture, High Crime
Recent immigrants from Africa or Asia
High-density suburbs to preserve limited land.
Tourism motivates preservation of the status-quo in the urban core
Are these characteristics in America's future?

Less Developed Countries
Today Suburban Poor, Wealthy Core
Precolonial Cities
Religious Core (Mosque or Temple)
paired with market or bazaar
Gov Building and Wealthy Residential
Impoverished fringe
Often religious "quarters" for Jews, Christian, Foreigners, etc.
Colonial Cities
Demolish or Relegate existing urban centers
Latin America (Laws of the Indies - 1573)
Gridiron street plan
Church and Central Plaza
Walled homes centered on smaller parish churches/monesteries and plazas
Since Independence
Rapid Urbanization
Suburban Poor, Wealthier Core
Latin America - elite residential spine along business, commercial, and cultural zones. Reliable water and electricity.
Squatter Settlements
"barriadas, favelas" in Latin America
"bidonvilles" in N. Africa
"bastees" in India
175 million worldwide in 2003
Central "public" latrines
Carried or trucked in water
Primitive shelters develope and become more "permanent"

Key Issue 3: Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges?
Inner-City Physical Issues
Inner-City Social Issues
Inner-City Economic Issues
Filtering (subdividing homes for rent)
Absentee Landlords
Abandoned Properties = cost to maintain above rent gained
Neighborhoods with 100,000 not have 10,000.
1970 = 620,000
2011 = 320,000
Public and Private institutions close
Low-income families move and process begins again
Today, allows for some large scale developement projects
Townhome complexes
Gated communities
Banks mapping out areas to refuse loans
Illegal but hard to enforce
Freddi-Mac and Fannie-Mae and Government Involvement
Urban Renewal
Cities acquire blighted neighboorhoods
Clear the site and put in a new infrastructure
Private and Public institutions Rebuild
Townhome Complexes
Gated Communities
Parks, Hospitals, Etc
Federal grants are avaliable
Urban renewal = "Negro Removal"
Public Housing (30% of income for rent)
federally funded
local government management
1% of all dwellings in USA
14% in the UK
Many built in the 50's and 60's and abandoned and then demolished.
High drug and crime rates
Poorly maintained

Poor trapped in unendying/generational poverty and social problems
poor schools
poor police and fire coverage
poor medical access
extremely high unemployment
job shift to suburbs
Culture of Poverty
characteristics that perpetuate poverty
unwed mothers (3/4 inner city)
single-parent houshold (3/4 inner city)
inadequate chind-care services
"deadbeat dads" adn failure to pay child support
high drug rate
gang culture and violence
de-facto segregation

Eroding Tax Base
growing gap between services and tax base
1) Reduce Services
clost libraries, bus routes, school cuts and closures, etc....only
further "pushes" middle-class out.
2) Raise Tax Revenues
tax breaks to downtown offices, hotels, resaurants and shops.
Provide jobs and tax revenue
infrastructure projects to draw business takes limited funds from the neighborhoods.
Fed money 1% of urban budgets in 1980, 18% in 1980, 6% in 1990. State governments have picked up some of the federal reductions
Impact of the Recession
Housing Market Collapsed
prior increases in subprime morgages
inner-city/low-income loans
poor credit histories
no background checks
Freddi Mac and Fannie Mae
Investments in housing seen as a sure bet...low risk with high return.
Recession began in 2008
10% behind in payments or in forclosure
falling house prices. morgage now exceeded value
encourages default and forclosure
widespread forclosure negatively effects financial institutions and especially banks
banks begin to charge higher interest rates or stop providing loans at all...even to businesses
businesses lower production due to lack of loans/stability/and consumer confidence
business profits dry up, lay-off workers
higher and higher unemployment
lower and lower consumption
ever falling home prices
rising interest rates
FEDERAL BAILOUT of many companies (Financial Institutions and Major Businesses)

Key Issue 4: Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?
Urban Expansion
Suburban Segregation
The Peripheral Model
An inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
nodes of consumer and business services are called edge cities.
suburban shopping malls
suburban industrial districts
hotels and warehouses near airports
Transportation and Suburbanization
Usually done with majority vote
1800 preference for annexation
Today fight for legal self-jurisdiction while enjoying proximity to large cities
Leads to highly fragmented and independent network of local governments
Cape Giraredau County?
Defining Urban Settlements
City = a legal self-governing entity
elected officials
taxation ability
provides essential services
Since 1950 major cities have experienced substantial losses in populaiton and tax revenues
Urbanized Area = a built-up area
1,000+ persons per square mile
70% of US Population 30/40 split
challenge in gathering statistical info
Metropolitan Area = a functional area of influence
commuter access, shopping range, TV/news markets, sports team fans, etc.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
minimum pop of 50,000
Includes the county itself and surrounding counties that have a adequate population density with 50% working in the central city's county
2009 = 366 MSA's - 84% of US Population
Urbanized Area within an MSA contains the vast majority of the Population (90%)
Micropolitan Statistical Area
minimum pop of 10,000
2008 = 574 mostly in the "rural" south and west - 10% of US Population
Combined Statistical Areas = 124 in the US today
Overlapping Metropolitan Areas
Megalopolis (Boswash cooridor)
Boston to Washington D.C
Chicago and Wilwaukee to Pittsburgh
Southern California
Elsewhere in the MDC
Germany, Netherland, and Japan
Local Gov. Fragmentation
creates a challenge to solving regional traffic, waste, and housing problems
20,000 local governments in the USA - 1,400 in the New York Area alone
40% are cities and counties, the remainder are "special purpose" units (schools, sanitation, water, fire, etc.)
A "Council of Government" represents an attempt at cooperation between local governments
East-West Gateway Council of Government (STL)
Indianapolis/Marion County & Miami/Dade County)
Toronto (1953-1998 federation of 13 municipalities, Today a single government)

Density Gradient
The number of houses per unit of land decreases as distance from the city center increases
Does this still hold?
Cost of Suburban Sprawl
Developement often rejects land adjacent to built-up areas and results in a "swiss cheese" periphery
Unduly extends road and utility lines
Wastes land, especially agricultural
Wastes energy/gasoline in commutes
European trend toward "green belts" outside cities and the buidling up on the fringe of cities and towns
"Smart Growth" initiative for many in the US to check "Urban Sprawl"
Residential Segregation
Polls show overwhelming preference for suburban living
Exclusion by cost (de facto segregation)
Legal devices (minimum lot size or exclusion of apartments)
With urban core gentrification and continued sprawl, inner suburbs are now losing middle/upper incomes and gaining persons of lower income
Suburbanization of Business
elimination of neighborhood/corner shops with preferance for supermarkets in shopping centers
shopping malls have put great pressure on smaller retail shops. Require one/two anchor stores to build from.
Factories and Offices
cheap land with better truck access
single story with loading bays and parking lots
access to highways
Executive preference for offices near homes, may put stress on office/clerical staff due to the lack of access to public transit to suburbs
Motor Vehicles
Made large scale suburbanization in the US possable.
95% of all trips made in US cities are by car
Interstate System expanded the use of cars
1/4 of city land is devoted to roads and parking lots
Public Transit
Rush Hour puts strain on the transportation systems
Advantages to Public Transit (Bus, Rail, Subway)
Less Polluting
Energy Efficient
More Compact Land Use
Public Transit in the US
Minimal or nonexistent public transit in most cities (5% of work commutes the US)
Substantial services in New York, Boston, San Francisco, Washington D.C, Chicago, and Philadelphia - 1/2 to 1/4th of commutes
American prefer flexability and privacy to cost
Only public transit to expand in the US over the decades is subway or streetcar/light rail.
STL Metrolink
Jobs now heavily suburbanized and public transit has limited routes there

Businesses with...
High Threshold (Department Stores)
High Range (Jewelry, Clothing, Tourism)
infrequent customers
Consumption by CBD workers and/or residents
Advertising, banking, finance, journalism, legal courts, government, office supplies and copying, restraunts, business clothing, dry cleaning = interdependence which further draws business. (Face-to-Face business interaction and/or "networking" still vital)
Central location = labor access to entire metro area and to competitors skilled labor.

High Land Cost
Intensive Land Use
Use of underground space
parking, loading docks, utility lines, subways, etc
Skyline unique to timing of downtown developement (architecural styles)
Begins in Chicago?
Required - Iron-frame construction, elevators, electric lighting, ventilation = heating and air.
Lowest levels = highest rent for foot/street traffic access
Mid-level = professional offices
High-level = panoramic view

Activities Excluded fom the CBD
Lack of Industry
Modern Industry Requires
1 story
cheaper land
modern port facilities relocated outside CBD. CBD shoreline now commercial and recreational zones.
Lack of Residents
Early = poor apartments/tenaments and wealthy mansions
Mid 1900's = middle and upperclass shift to suburbs
Pull: large yards, new schools.
Push: high rent, dirt, crime, congestion, and poverty
21st Centruy = business class apartments and townhouses.
young professionals without children
"empty nesters"
Pull: entertainment, resaurants, museums, and nightlife.
Push: quality of neighboorhoods and poor schools.

Downtown = less than 1% of a cities size but concentrates business and public institutions.
Less dominated by commerce and business
Prominant structures = churches, palaces, public squares, now public parks.
Low-rise, narrow streets, preserved historic centers
Outside N. America
More residential with markets and stores
Bans of traffic access
Higher land cost and rent than N. America

Criticisms of the Urban Dev. Models
Simplistic (too many exceptions)
Dated (fail to considered contemporary urban patterns)
Best use is to consider and incorporate portions of all models in analyzing urban patterns
Renovated Housing
Private non-profit purchase and renovation programs
Required commitment from urban elites
"Gentrification" - movement of middle-class into renovated housing.
architectural, historic.
downtown employment
little to no commute
proximity to cultural attractions
often the opposite of ethnic demographic trends
ideal for singles and/or couples without children
cities often provide low-cost loans or tax breaks
criticized for drving low income residents out with rising prices and rents
Full transcript