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Stress & Welfare

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by

Carrie Ijichi

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of Stress & Welfare

This term comes from engineering where is refers to the

load placed on a system
.
What is Stress?
Homeostasis
Biological Responses
Reproduction
Negative Consequences of Stress
All living systems require a
certain amount of stress
to function normally
Summary
Physical Examples
Stressors
Stress & Welfare
Lecture A
Stress causes
strain
, measured as the
deformation of the system.
In biology, stress is the
intensity & duration
of a challenge
faced by an organism.
Strain refers to the
alteration in the organism's
physiological system.
Living organisms have
negative feedback
responses
to minimise these deviations...
When this balance is maintained within acceptable limits, the animal is
coping
successfully.
Animals have a physical and mental
equilibrium
they must maintain.
Stress is a biological response elicited when an individual perceives a
threat to it's homeostasis.
If the challenge
exceeds the animal's ability
to maintain homeostasis, they are no longer coping successfully, known as
distress
Psychological Examples
Growth
Reduced Immune
Function
Exhaustion
Tomorrow We Will be...
"Animal Welfare" (Appleby et al., 2011)
Chapter 10
Looking at how we
assess
welfare using
physiological and behavioural stress responses
outlined today.
So you need to read:
Make sure that you
really understand
these changes and what triggers them
Learning Outcomes for today
An event or experience that
causes stress
(Collins English Dictionary, 2009)
It causes a
threat to homeostasis
, either by challenging physical or psychological systems
This causes a
stress response
in an attempt to
maintain homeostasis and protect the animal
Overcrowding, bullying, aggression,
competition over resources
Restricted movement, barren environment, isolation
Fear can be caused by bad handling/training, inappropriate predator presence, chaotic environment
Thermal demands
Inappropriate diet
Injury or Pain
Categorising Stress
Sub-Clinical
Clinical
Acute
Chronic
Short, brief and intense
exposure, typically to a single stressor
Acute stress is a
normal aspect of life
which may reflect actual, potential or imagined threat
Prolonged exposure
to one stressor or a number of acute stressors accumlating, either of which can lead to
distress
A stressor is present in the environment but
not placing strain
on the animal yet
This means that it
doesn't shift resources
away from normal function and so
hasn't challenged homeostasis
However, it consumes some level of resources, leaving the animal
vulnerable
- "the straw that breaks the camel's back"
Clear signs & symptoms
which are
behavioural and physiological
Yield
Behavioural Responses
"Fight"
- try to remove the stressor
"Flight"
- remove yourself from the stressor
"Freeze"
- hope to remain undetected
Freeze
Freeze
Fight
Fight
Flight
Flight
These biological responses successfully prepare crucial
behavioural responses
and have
physical consequences
Stressors are conditions or events which
threaten homeostasis
Stress can be
physical
or
psychological
,
acute
or
chronic
,
subclinical
or
clinical
To cope with stress, living systems may
divert energy from other crucial functions
, which can have profound effects
Stress is indicated by changes in
behaviour, health and physiology
It is only when stress
exceeds an animal's ability to cope
that it is harmful
Although these diagrams represent humans,
these principles are fundamentally the same in animals
and watch the stress response video again
Explain the impact that stress, and the animal's response to stress, have on animal welfare
Aims for today
Understand what stress is,
what triggers it,
the bodies response to it
and the consequences of stress
Full transcript