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English Language Terminology Revison
Transcript of English Language Terminology Revison
English Language Terminology Revision
The first letters of a series of words are pronounced as a new word:
The first letters of a series of words are pronounced individually:
A letter is replaced with an apostrophe:
Two words are blended together to form a new word:
Communication with your voice, i.e.:
Communication without words, i.e.:
* Facial Expression
A part of the word has been cut off to make an abbreviation:
* Maths (Mathematics)
* Exam (Examination)
* Fave (Favorite)
Rather than saying "incorrect" spelling:
A word or letter is missed out:
* "Going to Pub"
("Going to the Pub")
A number replaces a word or letter(s):
* Off 2 Pub
Linguist who came up with/said:
* Internet communication is becoming more informal,
* Computers imitate human interaction, "Are you sure?".
Came up with "Accommodation Theory":
* Convergence (adjusting speech to be like someone)
* Divergence (to be different from someone)
Came up with four Maxims
* Quality (Being truthful)
* Quantity (Not saying too much/little)
* Relevance (Keeping to the point)
* Manner (Speaking clearly)
Linguist who came up with "Synthetic Personalisation" (When companies create a relationship or make it seem like they are talking to you)
A pronoun replaces
* First Person: "I"
* Second Person: "You"
* Third Person: "He"/"She"
Sentences which are commands, that usually start with a verb:
* "Sit down!"
* "Stir the ingredients"
* "Click this button"
Insider references that rely on the other person understanding:
* "Meet you at the usual place"
* "Remember what happened last time?"
When there is a delay between messages:
When communication happens in "real time":
A conversation between two people.
Conversation is structured around logical pairs of responses:
* Question and Answer,
* Greeting and Response.
Informal Language, that can also be referred to as Informal Lexis. Everyday speech between friends, colleagues etc.
Words that mark the boundaries between topics of conversation:
* "Now then"
* "All right then"
Field Specific Lexis
Words relating to a particular subject area:
* e.g. Horse-racing - Jockey, Bookie, Paddock, Odds, Furlong, Stallion.
Speakers soften the impact of what they are saying, or avoid saying it all together:
* "Sort of"
* "...Getting back to the point at hand"
* "Moving on"
The way an individual speaks in a way that is unique to them.
("er", "um", "you know")
* Pauses in conversation
A word added in conjunction with a verb to alter the urgency of a command:
* Must ("You MUST clean your room")
Another way of saying "Small Talk". Talking about menial subjects such as the weather or sports scores.
How words sound when they are spoken aloud. Certain techniques can be used to emphasis this:
* Percussive Consonants
Proper Noun: London, John.
Concrete Noun: Table, Apple.
Abstract Noun: Love, Belief.
What can be read between the lines.
When part of a word or letter is elongated for emphasis:
* "Soooooo Gooooood"
* "Bye lovelyyyyy"
* "Feed me more more more"
A dialect from a certain Social Class
(Similar to Idiolect but for a group of people rather than an individual)
When a speaker makes repairs to their own speech:
* "I am... er have a pen"
* "Where was... um is the cat"
Questions added to the end of sentences to engage the other person in the conversation:
* "You've done your homework, haven't you?"
* "We went there before, remember?"
* "The TV doesn't work, does it?"
Words often used in instructional texts that relate to time:
A word that adds detail to a verb (doing word):
A word that adds detail to a noun (naming word):
Providing feedback when listening to show the speaker that you are listening:
* "Oh right"
* "I see"
Convergence & Divergence
Adjusting speech to be similar or different from someone.
Upward and Downward Convergence/Divergence
A form of speech particular to a district, class or person.
When two words are slurred together when spoken:
A combination of punctuation, letters and numbers to create smiley faces, that are used in texts and emails:
Power used to influence or persuade people.
Power used to maintain and enforce authority (backed ultimately by law).
* Police officers
* Lawyers and Judges
Social talk between people who may know each other quite well.
When one speaker interrupts another.
A symbol that
replaces a word:
* (Not to be confused with an ampersand - &)
Dialogue that overlaps or is spoken simultaneously.
Language used in "transactions" such as buying something or arranging something.
Mental Verb Process
Material Verb Process
Verbs that are physical actions:
Verbs that are indirect actions: