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English Language Terminology Revison

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by

Emma Sayers

on 23 January 2014

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Transcript of English Language Terminology Revison

By Emma Sayers
English Language Terminology Revision
Acronym
The first letters of a series of words are pronounced as a new word:
* NASA
* SCUBA
Initialism
The first letters of a series of words are pronounced individually:
* BBC
* GCSE
*RAF
Contraction
A letter is replaced with an apostrophe:
* Don't
* We'll
* Can't
Blend
Two words are blended together to form a new word:
* Jeggings
* Smog
* Motel
Paralanguage
Communication with your voice, i.e.:
* Tone
* Volume
* Tempo
* Pitch
* Intonation
Non-Verbal Communication
Communication without words, i.e.:
* Facial Expression
* Posture
* Gesture
Clippings
A part of the word has been cut off to make an abbreviation:
* Maths (Mathematics)
* Exam (Examination)
* Fave (Favorite)
Non-Standard Spelling
Rather than saying "incorrect" spelling:
* Wot
* Nite
Omission/Ellipsis
A word or letter is missed out:
* "Going to Pub"
("Going to the Pub")
* Beltin'
(Belting)
Numerical Substitution
A number replaces a word or letter(s):
* L8r
* Off 2 Pub
David Crystal
Linguist who came up with/said:
* "Nettiquette",
* Internet communication is becoming more informal,
* Computers imitate human interaction, "Are you sure?".
Howard Giles
Came up with "Accommodation Theory":
* Convergence (adjusting speech to be like someone)
* Divergence (to be different from someone)
Grice
Came up with four Maxims
of conversation:
* Quality (Being truthful)
* Quantity (Not saying too much/little)
* Relevance (Keeping to the point)
* Manner (Speaking clearly)
Norman Fairclough
Linguist who came up with "Synthetic Personalisation" (When companies create a relationship or make it seem like they are talking to you)
Personal Pronouns
A pronoun replaces
a noun:
* First Person: "I"
* Second Person: "You"
* Third Person: "He"/"She"
Imperatives
Sentences which are commands, that usually start with a verb:
* "Sit down!"
* "Stir the ingredients"
* "Click this button"
Shared Context
Insider references that rely on the other person understanding:
* "Meet you at the usual place"
* "Remember what happened last time?"
Asynchronous Communication
When there is a delay between messages:
* Texts
* Email
Synchronous Communication
When communication happens in "real time":
* Skype
* Telephone
Dyadic Communication
A conversation between two people.
Adjacency Pairs
Conversation is structured around logical pairs of responses:
* Question and Answer,
* Greeting and Response.
Colloquialism
Informal Language, that can also be referred to as Informal Lexis. Everyday speech between friends, colleagues etc.
Discourse Markers
Words that mark the boundaries between topics of conversation:
* "So"
* "Now then"
* "Well"
* "All right then"
Field Specific Lexis
Words relating to a particular subject area:
* e.g. Horse-racing - Jockey, Bookie, Paddock, Odds, Furlong, Stallion.
Hedging
Speakers soften the impact of what they are saying, or avoid saying it all together:
* "Sort of"
* "Kinda"
* "...Getting back to the point at hand"
* "Moving on"
Idiolect
The way an individual speaks in a way that is unique to them.
Non-Fluency Features
Hesitations in
spoken language:
* Fillers
("er", "um", "you know")
* Pauses in conversation
Modal Verbs
A word added in conjunction with a verb to alter the urgency of a command:
* Could
* Might
* May
* Should
* Will
* Must ("You MUST clean your room")
Phatic Talk
Another way of saying "Small Talk". Talking about menial subjects such as the weather or sports scores.
Phonological Effects
How words sound when they are spoken aloud. Certain techniques can be used to emphasis this:
* Alliteration
* Assonance
* Onomatopoeia
* Rhyme
* Percussive Consonants
Nouns
Proper Noun: London, John.
Concrete Noun: Table, Apple.
Abstract Noun: Love, Belief.
Pragmatics
What can be read between the lines.
Reduplication
When part of a word or letter is elongated for emphasis:
* "Soooooo Gooooood"
* "Bye lovelyyyyy"
* "Feed me more more more"
Sociolect
A dialect from a certain Social Class
(Similar to Idiolect but for a group of people rather than an individual)
Repairs
When a speaker makes repairs to their own speech:
* "I am... er have a pen"
* "Where was... um is the cat"
Tag Questions
Questions added to the end of sentences to engage the other person in the conversation:
* "You've done your homework, haven't you?"
* "We went there before, remember?"
* "The TV doesn't work, does it?"
Temporal Conjunctions
Words often used in instructional texts that relate to time:
* Next
* Now
* Then
* Finally
* Later
* After
Adverb
A word that adds detail to a verb (doing word):
* Slowly
* Hastily
* Passionately
Adjective
A word that adds detail to a noun (naming word):
* Solid
* Soft
* Caring
* Shinny
Back Channelling
Providing feedback when listening to show the speaker that you are listening:
* "Oh right"
* "I see"
* "Yeah"
Convergence & Divergence
Adjusting speech to be similar or different from someone.
Upward and Downward Convergence/Divergence
Declarative
A Statement
Dialect
A form of speech particular to a district, class or person.
Elision
When two words are slurred together when spoken:
* Gonna
* Kinda
* Sorta
Emoticon
A combination of punctuation, letters and numbers to create smiley faces, that are used in texts and emails:
* :)
* :P
* XD
* 8(
* ;L
Influential Power
Power used to influence or persuade people.
* Politicians
Instrumental Power
Power used to maintain and enforce authority (backed ultimately by law).
* Police officers
* Lawyers and Judges
Interactional Talk
Social talk between people who may know each other quite well.
Interrogative
A Question
Interruptions
When one speaker interrupts another.
Logogram
A symbol that
replaces a word:
* @
* (Not to be confused with an ampersand - &)
Overlapping
Dialogue that overlaps or is spoken simultaneously.
Transactional Talk
Language used in "transactions" such as buying something or arranging something.
Mental Verb Process
Material Verb Process
Verbs that are physical actions:
* Running
* Punching
* Fussing
* Laughing
Verbs that are indirect actions:
* Watching
* Pondering
* Believing
* Wishing
Full transcript