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The Duel for North America

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malika saxena

on 27 February 2015

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Transcript of The Duel for North America


Chapter 6
THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA

By:
Aaron Finley
Olivia Rosario
Kayla Leverich
Nathan Moore
Tabitha Jones
Kate White
Luke Sanders
Malika Saxena

During the late 1500s, France was taken over by foreign wars and internal conflicts between the Roman Catholics and the

Huguenots.

In 1598, the
Edict of Nantes
was issued. Finally, France became a powerful nation in Europe and began exploring the New World.

Huguenots:
French Protestants

Edict of Nantes:

granted limited
toleration to Huguenots
King

Louis

XIV
Once the Edict of Nantes was issued, France entered into a new age led by

King Louis XIV
-who was crowned when he was five and ruled for an astonishing 72 years. His vested interest in North American colonies finally brought France to the New World to exploit its riches.
Samuel de Champlain
The person who led France into North America was Samuel de Champlain, an enthusiastic explorer and soldier whose fervor and spirit gave him the nickname "Father of New France." He befriended tribes of the Huron Indians, and assisted them in an intense battle against the Iroquois. The more advanced weaponry of the French killed three Iroquois and wounded one, earning them the hate of the tribe. Because of this, the Iroquois often allied with the British against the French, and raided French settlements. This drastically slowed their progress into the fertile Ohio Valley.
THE CLASH OF EMPIRES
The earliest battle between France (Spain) and Britain was known as:
King William's War (1689-1697)
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)

In 1713, Britain severly beat France and Spain. As a result, they gained control of Nova Scotia (in Canada) and
trading rights in Spanish America.

Trading rights in Spanish America
Smuggling became a huge problem, and a British captain, Robert Jenkins, got his ear cut off by Spanish authorities. This led to the
War of Jenkin's Ear

in 1739 between the Spaniards and the British. Later on, this small hassle led to an even bigger conflict: King George's War (1744-1748).
American militia invaded New France with the help of a British fleet and managed to capture the French fort, Louisbourg.


The peace treaty of 1748 gave Louisbourg back to the French, which enraged the New Englanders. They felt as though their efforts were diminished by the proceedings of the Old World diplomats.
As the conflict between France and Britain intensified, a new figure arose onto the stage of history. In 1754, the governor of Virginia made
George Washington
the lieutenant colonel in command of a small Virginian army. Soon after, Washington and his men encountered a small group of French troops near Fort Duquesne and the French leader was killed. The French then returned to the battlefield with numerous reinforcements. The Virginians were outnumbered and Washington was forced to surrender.
However, as word of this battle spread to Nova Scotia, British authorities took vigorous action. Fearing a betrayal, they brutally evicted around four thousand French
Acadians
and sent them as far South as Louisiana.
(Basically ^ was payback-_-)

Acadians: 17th century French settlers of Acadia, which Britain conquered in 1713.

Britain's loss to the French (because of George Washington) and the cruelty with which the British treated the Acadians led to the
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR,
which then morphed into and was also known as the
SEVEN YEARS' WAR.
(1754-1763)
The Seven Years' War was fought in:
America
Europe
West Indies
Philippines
Africa
&
ON THE OCEAN
(Nations engaged in war)
boom.

During the first year of fighting in the Seven Years' War, the British suffered a series of defeats against the French and their broad network of Native American alliances. However, in 1757, British Prime Minister
William Pitt
recognized the potential of imperial expansion that would come out of victory against the French and he funded an expanded war effort. He led the British to their first significant victory of the entire war.

By 1760, the French had been expelled from Canada, and by 1763 all of France's allies in Europe had either made a separate peace with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India.

The Seven Years' War
ended
with the signing of the treaties of
Hubertusburg
and
Paris
in
February 1763.
In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and naval supremacy of Britain. It also strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south.

Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
By 1760, the French had been expelled from Canada, and by 1763 all of France's allies in Europe had either made a separate peace with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India.
The Seven Years War ended with the signing of the treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris in February 1763. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain and strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south. Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
Battle of Quebec (1759):

William Pitt chose
James Wolfe
to be the official in charge of leading this battle. And while Wolfe and the opposing commander (Marquis de Montcalm) both fell, the French were ultimately defeated and the city capitulated.
This battle, along with the conquest of Montreal, marked the end of French power in North America. (by the peace settlement in Paris)

James Wolfe:
very experienced; officer since age of 14
The Treaty of Paris spent a harsh blow to many Native American tribes. Since the Spanish and French were removed from America, the Indian's most powerful weapon- the ability to play off rival European powers against one another-had been stripped away.
Because the Indians were in a tough situation, Ottowa chief Pontiac led many Indians in what is known as
Pontiac's Uprising.

Pontiac's Uprising (1763): Violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country; 2000 soldiers & settlers were killed.

^ The British quickly retaliated by distributing blankets infected with smallpox to the Indians-----which was just plain rude, and not to mention extremely deadly to the Native American tribes
Finally, the
PROCLAMATION OF 1763
was issued. This prohibited English settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians, which appeased the Indians.
C
I
T
A
T
I
O
N
S
:

"The Seven Years War Begins."
History.com.
A&E Television Networks. Web. 26 Aug. 2014.


Seven Years War (1756-1763). (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_sevenyears.html


William Pitt. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2014, from http://www.usahistory.info/French-Indian-War/William-Pitt.html

IN
CONCLUSION:
Due to domestic affairs,
France was late in colonizing
North America.
Once they began,
their choice of allies
(Huron Indian tribes)
caused the federated Iroquois
to ally with Britain in the case of war.
At first,
France scored a series of victories over land,
but in the end, Britain took almost all of the French claims.
While the British were victorious, the American colonists still
yearned for independence and were
resentful towards the
harsh ways
by which they were treated
GEORGE TAKES ARMS!
Chapter 6
THE DUEL FOR NORTH AMERICA

Matching(:


Louis XIV

Samuel de Champlain

William Pitt

James Wolfe
Pontiac

Edict of Nantes

Huguenots

War of Jenkin's Ear

Peace Treaty of 1748

Acadians

Battle of Quebec

Proclamation of 1763














Ruled France for 72 years

"Father of New France"

Ottowa chief who wished to drive the British out of Ohio

led the British to their first significant victory of war

Injured in the Battle of Quebec; officer since age 14

Granted limited tolerance towards the Huguenots

French residents of Acadia; were violently removed and scattered

Prevented English settlers from exploring past the Appalachians

French Protestants

Was caused by Spanish officials cutting off this man's ear

This gave Louisbourg back to the French and enraged New Englanders

Was a major turning point in the Seven Years' War
















(England declared war on France)
Full transcript