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Transcript of Istanbul
Mahmoud AL Badry
Life During the Modern Era
The period that followed continued the demise of the Ottoman Empire.
Reform began to take shape however in the form of Mahmud II eliminating the Janissary corps in 1826 coupled with several attempts at modernizing the Islamic religion in the late 19th century.
Nevertheless, these efforts failed in bridging the now significant gap between the Empire and their dominant, European counterparts and the Ottoman Empire began to be known as the sick man of Europe.
Not much known about them except:
First known inhabitants in Istanbul.
They were nomadic.
Turkey's history, which is full of traces from the Roman, Greeks, and Ottoman Empires is for sure one of the reasons why tourists come and visit the city.
Number of tourists who visited Istanbul during 2013 was: 39,724,912
The country’s secular shift, first introduced after WWI, has continued to this very day with a profound coexistence between the Muslim majority and minorities inside the country.
What made Turkey progress more than Egypt?
Turkey was never colonized.
Turkey was the exploiter rather than the exploited.
Such status allowed it for a quicker path towards modernity which came in the form of Ataturk’s policies which ranged from secularism to equality between genders to an industrial economy to a relatively stable democratic political realm compared to other Middle Eastern countries.
What About Turkey Today?
Purpose of Our Presentation?
Our purpose is to explain Turkey's historical importance & to illustrate how it's currently more advanced than all the other provinces in the Ottoman Empire.
The Greeks/ Byzantine Empire:
First civilization came at the hands of the Greeks in the late 600s BCE.
King Byzas, one of the great Greek leaders established a port settlement and renamed it into Byzantion.
Language: Medieval or byzantine Greek.
Lasted for 800 years.
The Ottoman Empire
The rising Ottoman Empire exploited such weaknesses and divisions in conquering Constantinople in the 15th century.
The Ottoman Empire established Islam as the main religion inside the city and in the empire as a whole.
The city's name was changed from Constantinople to Istanbul.
Early on, the Ottoman Empire was very successful in being fairly secular and promoting of artistic achievements.
The Ottoman's utilized the city's favorable position to control travel from Europe to Asia.
The city started to excel in many aspects such as producing silk and cotton along with having massive architectural achievements (especially mosques).
The Ottoman system of governance would eventually fall with a massive increase in populations coupled with continuous corruption at the highest level of the government.
Civilizations of Istanbul:
The Romans eventually succeeded in invading Byzantion.
After the civil war inside the Roman Empire ended with Constantine I emerging victorious, the city was renamed to Constantinople and became the new capital for the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire.
The empire was Christian.
Art and culture developed massively around that time with many paintings being religious at their core.
The Roman Empire would begin falling apart with a massive division between the flailing, Western Roman Empire and the flourishing Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire with Constantinople as its capital.
A series of wars with Russia in the 18th century marked the first real sign of the decline for the Ottoman empire. They ended in 1774 with Russia emerging victorious; marking the first ever military defeat for Ottoman forces.
Footprints into Modernity
Turkey is the only country that best illustrates the blend of the East and West.
Its location in North-Western Turkey marks it as a true continental bridge between Europe and Asia.
More About Its Geography..
Istanbul's possession of the Bosphorus Strait and the Golden Horn has not only afforded inhabitants with natural resources, but has also helped in preventing attacking forces from several directions for thousands of years.
Istanbul has a markedly high humidity since its surrounded by water from every side.
This humidity definitely helped farming in the early stages of the city's existence; thus causing early visiting groups to settle in during the beginning of the Agrarian Era.
Factors that make Istanbul Unique?
Questions For You..
Who has visited Istanbul before?
What was the most thing you liked there or the thing you remember the most?
What's unique about Istanbul?
How many empires was Istanbul the capital for?
When most of the citizens are Muslim in a country, it doesn't mean that country can't be secular, modern, or practice freedom. Majority of people are Muslim in Turkey, yet the culture is more European and you can see everything you can in any other modern country.
After their defeat, the Ottoman Empire were forced to sign the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca which stipulated that Orthodox Christians in Ottoman lands could now be protected by Russia; opening the door for future Russian expansion under a suddenly flailing Ottoman sovereignty.
World War I
In November 1914, the Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers to recover its territories in Eastern Anatolia that had been lost during the Russo-Turkish war.
There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, but the superior military strength of Western Europe proved to be too much to handle for the weaker Ottomans. The empire, along with its central allies were eventually defeated in the war and had several of its lands redistributed to the victors.
Turkish War of Independence
The occupation of Constantinople and Izmir led to the establishment of a Turkish National Movement which won the Turkish War of Independence under the leadership of Ataturk.
What After? The Fall of Ottoman Empire & The Declaration of The Republic of Turkey:
Ataturk abolished the sultanate on 1922.
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey declared the Republic of Turkey in 1923 after defeating the allied forces in their battle of independence.
The Turkish Republic
Atatürk embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern and secular nation-state.
Some of the Reasons Why Ataturk Was a Successful Leader?
Thousands of new schools were built.
Primary education was made free.
Women were given equal civil and political rights.
While the burden of taxation on peasants was reduced.
Established democracy in the country.
Mustafa Kemal immediately changed the capital from Istanbul to Ankara to signify the new “Turkish” future for the country compared to its imperial past.
It remained neutral for the most part in World War 2 and abolished its single party system in 1945.
Turkey is trying to become a member of the European Union.
When you visit Istanbul, you feel like you're in an eastern country with a western twist to it.
President Erdogan wants to bring back the language of the Ottoman Empire
However, the country has recently started taking an Islamic shift organized by the current president, Erdogan.
This shift has severely alienated most of the population as shown by the recent protests in the country last year despite having 90 percent of Muslim people.