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Cali Castanon's History project on Africa
Transcript of Cali Castanon's History project on Africa
Kongo was a wet and a dry place, but at different times in the year. The long dry seasons lasted from May-September; but short dry season was from the middle of December- February. The long wet season lasted from October-December and the short season lasted from February- May. The average temperature in Kongo is 77 degrees Fahrenheit (or 25 degrees Celsius).
The Fall of Songhai
The Rise of Songhai
Mali began to fall when a warrior named Sunni Ali broke away from Mali and started the kingdom Songhai. He built such a powerful army that he soon conquered Mali. Just like Mali, the first rulers of Songhai didn't follow the Islamic laws seriously.
Mali began when Ghana fell because the Muslims conquered it. Like Ghana they got a lot of their money from trade, mostly gold. It lasted without some of the resources Ghana had because Mali's soldiers conquered some land around Ghana that had the resources.
Ghana lasted from 500-1200 C.E. It became a big and rich empire because of trade and its taxes. Ghana's rulers taxed everything that came in or left Ghana through trade. They also collected tributes. A tribute is payment that the conquered cities payed to their new ruler. Because of all this money coming in, it soon became a huge empire that was about 500 miles long.
By Cali Castanon
There are different Bantu languages but they
all have the same grammatical structure and the words were similar. The most common was the proto-Bantu. In the African area, there were only two non-Bantu people before the Muslims came to Africa. For the next 2000 years, their villages became crowded and people moved to the south and central Africa for more agriculture.
When the Shona came to Zimbabwe, they made jewelry out of the gold they found, until they found out it was worth a lot. They traded gold for Chinese silk, Indian glass beads, and Persian pottery. Zimbabwe soon became rich because of the gold trade.
Zimbabwe used to be a big city. Zimbabwe means "houses of stone" It's peak in power was in 1000-1300 C.E. When the Shonan started making improvements to Zimbabwe, that made it the great Zimbabwe. The people of Shona had lived there since 300 C.E.
The fall of Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe fell because it went through decades of droughts. This made it hard to grow crops so some people moved to where they could grow crops, even though some stayed.
Ghana was ruled by a king which was in charge of a lot. He was in charge of the justice matters, head of the army, and led religious worships. The king also collected taxes, tributes, and gold. The king collected gold because all gold found in Ghana was sent to the king. The king collected all the taxes, money, tributes and gold so he could keep his wealth. Everyday, the king went to court to conduct businesses in his empire. Anybody was aloud to come. The king did not rule alone. He had officials who helped him. The officials helped with taxes, armed forces, industry, and foreigners. Governors helped rule some parts of the kingdom. When the king died the power did not go to his son because they (at the time) had the royal inheritance as a matrilineal. That means that the sister of the kings son was the king.
Ghana's military was made up of a regular army, reserve army, and elite soldiers. The regular army included thousands of career soldiers who made sure the borders were safe, put down minor revolts, and kept peace and order. They wore sandals, cotton pants, tunics, and a headdress with feathers. The color of the tunic and the number of feathers on his headdress indicated what he was ranked. The elite soldiers were selected for their courage, honesty, and intelligence. They were bodyguards, escorts, and military advisers.
The Fall of Ghana
Ghana fell in 1203 C.E. It started to
fall when a group of Muslims called the
Almoravids captured Ghana's capital Kumbi. They also lost some natural resources, because of the drought, so when they won their capital back, they soon lost it again. They lost it again because they no longer had the resources for the army. After Ghana fell the new Mali formed.
The Effect Islamic Ideas
The trans-Saharan trade brought the muslims to West Africa. The early leaders of Mali accepted its teachings but they never did anything the 5 pillars said that you should do in life. The first leader to follow the teachings was Mansa Musa. Mali soon became a huge Islamic kingdom. To the Islamic world, Mansa Musa's biggest acomplishments was the hajj or the pilgrimage to the city to Makkah. The hajj was 3,000 miles so, to keep the king safe, 8,000 people came, 500 slaves each holding a 6-pound gold staff, and 200 camels holding 30,000 pounds of gold. He gave all the gold away (because of the 5 pillars)to Cairo, Arabia, and Makkah. Because of this Mali became an Empire of importance, and was finally put on the European map.
Mali's New Language
Before the Muslims came to Africa, the African people had their own speaking language, but not a written language. As Islamic culture spread, its own language, Arabic, spread with it. Arabic became the language of religion, writing, learning, government, and commerce. If you believed in the Islamic faith you had to memorize the Qur'an, which was in Arabic. In Africa both of their languages were important to them
The Fall of Mali
Mali began to fall because the ruler after Mansa
Musa, was weak and could not handle the pressure. Invaders started attacking, so Mali fell apart slowly. The Muslims pressured them into believing in what they did, Allah. The Muslims slowly won Mali, making it into a greater empire Songhai.
The Rebel Of Muslims
Muslims started to rebel because the leaders didn't follow Islamic teachings. Soon a Muslim King was put in charge, Mohammed Toure. The new king even led wars so non-Muslims would convert. Under Mohammed's rule, he got a kingdom that was as large as western Europe. He made it the largest empire in African History.
Trade in Songhai was very important
because it made the kingdom rich. The trans-Sahara was key to becoming a huge and rich empire because it brings in riches and money; and Songhai was in charge of it all. Also, because they believed in the Islamic faith and that was the main religion, they were respected around the known world. That means that they were allies with lots of countries and that helped it become a big empire. Also, that means Songhai traded with countries from all over the world.
Songhai didn't last long because Moroccans learned about gunpowder. This easily beat the swords, spears, and arrows that Songhai had. Moroccan soldiers were placed in cities like Timbuktu and Gao. Trade routes became unsafe which brought in diseases. Drought also lowered the economy. Songhai became separate states.
The Rise of Kongo
Kongo became wealthy because it's neighbors, the
Portuguese, helped them with money, invaders, and weapons. In return they asked for some different valuable items but mostly slaves. To get along better, Kongo switched their religion to Christianity. For awhile, Kongo and the Portuguese were good neighbors and friend countries.
The Great Zimbabwe
The Fall Of Kongo
The fall of Kongo began to happen when
the Portuguese gave Kongo the weapons because they fought with itself. The king tried to stop the slave trade but Portuguese started attacking Kongo. Kongo lost the war. Even though Portuguese was trying to help when Kongo started, they ended Kongo.
Education in Kongo
As a first language, Kongo children would learn to speak Kikongo. Kikongo is one of the many Bantu type languages. Around the time when Portuguese started helping Kongo children, as their second language, children would then learn how to speak Portuguese. Everyone also learned a little about the Christian religion.
The Rise of The Ayyubid Dynasty
The Ayyubid Dynasty was founded by Saladin or Salah al-Din. Saladin's father was the ruler of Egypt, upper Mesopotamia, most of Syria, and Yemen, so all soon became part of the Ayyubid Dynasty. They were a Sunni Muslim dynasty.
Ayyubid Art and Architecture
Even though most of the dynasty was Muslim, art was never effected by Islamic ideas because Muslims believed it was wrong to worship idols. Art was just for decoration.
Architecture in the Ayyubid dynasty was different than art because Islamic ideas did effect architecture. Many buildings were made for Islamic worship so they had religious meanings.
The Fall of Ayyubid
In 1206 the Mongols conquered the main part of the Ayyubid Dynasty. They took Syria. In some places the Ayyubid stayed, but in the 16th century all of Ayyubid was gone.
The First Crusade
Saladin's brother conquered Yemen before the first Crusade. In the first Crusade, Yemen lost Jerusalem. In between the first and second Crusade, generals Zangi and Nureddin won back Jerusalem in 1187 A.D.