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TOEFL iBT Preparation

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Elizabeth Mormer

on 10 July 2014

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Transcript of TOEFL iBT Preparation

TOEFL iBT Preparation
Writing
Integrated Task
Reading
TOEFL
Overview
Listening
Vocabulary & Reference
Understanding Vocabulary from Context
Recognizing Referents
Sentences
Simplify Meanings of Sentences
Insert Sentences Into the Passage
Details
Find Factual Information
Understand Negative Facts
Inferences
Making Inferences from Stated Facts
Infer Rhetorical Purpose
Reading to Learn
Select Summary Information
Complete Schematic Tables
Forms of Questions
Multiple choice with four answer choices
Insert a sentence into the passage with four choices
Complete Schematic table about the main ideas of passage
Basic Comprehension
Pragmatic Understanding
Connecting Information
Forms of Questions
Understanding the Gist
Understanding the Details
Understanding the function
Understanding the Speakers' stance
Understanding the organization
Understanding relationships
multiple choice with four answer choices
select two answers from a list of four choices
charts: select columns according to organization of passages
Independent Task
2 Independent Tasks
2 Integrated Tasks
(Reading & Listening)
Speaking
2 Integrated Tasks (Listening & Speaking)
decode the question!!!
Introduction
Support introduction with the kinds of ideas the question asks for (such as reasons, details, or examples).
Conclusion **if you have time**
Note the main points as you listen
Plan before you speak
Make the Response
Note the main points as you read
Note the main points as you listen
Plan before you write
Write a topic statement
Write supporting paragraphs on reading passages
Write supporting paragraphs on listening passages
Review sentence structure
Review grammar
Plan before you write
Write the introduction
Write unified supporting paragraphs
Connect the supporting paragraphs
Write the conclusion
Review sentence structure
Review grammar
Skill 1: Note the main points as you read
Identify:

Topic of Reading Passage:

Main points which support the topic:



Plan before you write
Supporting paragraph 1:
(advantages/disadvantages)
example
example
Supporting Paragraph 2:
(advantages/disadvantages)
example
example
Conclusion:
Writing the Introduction
Interest
Topic
Organization
shocking statement
startling question
quote an authority
imaginary scenario
anecdote
interesting background information
familiar quotation or phrase
State the topic DIRECTLY in the middle of the introduction.
End the introduction with a statement that shows the ORGANIZATION of the topic.
" (1) The educational system where I have been a student for the last 16 years is a system that places a high value on individual achievement and little value on group achievement. (2) Having been a rather successful student in this educational system for the better part of my life, I am well aware of the advantages of working individually on projects. (3) However, I can only imagine the advantages of working on projects in groups".

Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test
Pearson-Longman (2007)
Introduction:
(thesis)
Plan before you write : Outline-up activity
Outline practice p. 275 #4 + 6
Skills 3: Plan the Paired-Choice Response
Skills 1: Plan the Free choice response
Introduction
Supporting Idea 1
Supporting Idea 2
Supporting Idea 3
Conclusion
Write Unified Supporting Paragraphs
Organization
Cohesion
includes main idea stated at beginning of paragraph
several sentences with supporting ideas
Use repeated and rephrased key ideas, pronouns and determiners, and transition expressions
Connect the Supporting Paragraphs
Supporting paragraph 1: advantages of working in groups
(advantages)
opportunity to learn from others
less work for individual members
(examples)
experience in group project in history (four people, some know things others don't, one quarter of the work for each person
example:
Transition expressions
Transition sentences
The first point I would like to make is...
Though there are strong advantages to...
the first
the next
in addition
another
finally
relate the topic of the previous paragraph to the topic of the current paragraph
Write the Conclusion
Overall Idea
Main Points
Interest
re-state the main idea (perhaps using rephrased and repated ideas!)
summarize the main points that you used to arrive at the overall idea
Refer back to the information that you used to interest the reader in the introduction!
what does it mean to "come full circle"?
Review Sentence Structure
Review Grammar
Be sure to check for errors in simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences
See appendix B
Be sure to check for errors with nouns and pronouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, articles and agreement
It is common knowledge that forecasting is an attempt by meteorologists to determine what the weather will be like in the future. Hindcasting is the opposite of forecasting, an attempt to determine what the weather was like in the past. Meteorologists wish that records of the weather had been kept in full for at least a few millennia, but it has been only in the last century that detailed records of the weather have been kept. Thus, meteorologists need to hindcast the weather, and they do so by using all sorts of information from other fields as diverse as archeology, botany, geology, literature, and art. These pieces of information from other fields that are used as a basis for drawing conclusions about what the weather must have been like at some point in the past are called proxies.
Topic of Reading Passage: hindcasting (trying to determine what the weather was like in the past)

main points about the topic:
detailed weather records kept for less than a century
proxies (information from various other fields) used to hindcast weather
Note the main points as you listen
p. 251 exercise 1
Identify:

Topic of Listening Passage:

Main points about the topic:



Topic of Reading Passage: Paintings that are proxies showing weather in 17th-century Holland colder than today

main points about the topic:
huge snow drifts higher than today's drifts
skaters on canals that are not frozen today
exercise on p. 254
Plan Before You Write
Question: How does the information in the listening passage add to the information in the reading passage?
Look at your notes
Think about how the two passages are related
ADDS to, CHALLENGES, or CONTRASTS
examples of each?
Question: How does the information in the listening passage cast doubt on the information in the reading passage?
ASK YOURSELF:
What is the role of the Reading passage?
What is the role of the Listening passage?
Activity: p. 259
Write a Topic Statement
RELATIONSHIP: should show how the information in the reading and listening passages are related
include TERMINOLOGY like:
adds to
supports
casts doubt on
challenges
Topic Statement

In this set of materials, the reading passage discusses a technique used by meteorologists, and the listening passage adds to this by providing an example of the technique from the 17th century.
Does this topic sentence follow the format? How?
Write Supporting Paragraphs on Reading Passages
State the topic of the reading passage briefly.
Summarize the key points of the reading passage briefly.
exercise: write a support paragraph on the reading passage
Write Supporting Paragraphs on Listening Passages
State the topic of the listening passage.
Summarize the key points of the listening passage.
**Relate the key points of the listening passage to the key points of the reading passage
exercise: write a supporting paragraph on listening
Topic: situations when emotions differ from culture to culture
main points:
difference in triggers for emotion
difference in situations where emotions are used
"The listening passage casts doubt on the conclusion in the reading passage by showing that other aspects of emotions differ from culture to culture. While it is true that the kinds of emotions and the facial expressions used to show emotions are similar in different cultures, as the reading passage states, it is also true that the triggers or emotions and the situations where emotions are used differ from culture to culture, as the listening passage states. Based on the information in the two passages, the conclusion has to be drawn that some aspects of emotion are intrinsic, while other aspects of emition are acquired."
Review Sentence Structure & Grammar
Check for errors in sentence structure in your response. Be sure to check for errors in simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences
Check for errors with nouns and pronouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, articles, and agreement.
example:
Question: Where would you like to be professionally in ten years? Use details to support your response.
Introduction: I would like to own my own business
Supporting Idea 1: first step
will get master's in business (entrepreneurship)
Supporting Idea 2: second step
will work in company while planning my business
Supporting Idea 3: third step
will start my own business when I am ready
Conclusion: I can succeed by following this process
Skill 2: Make the free choice response
Question:
Look for WHAT you should discuss and HOW you should organize your response. First decode the question to determine how to organize your response.
support your introduction with the kinds of ideas that the question asks for (such as rsons, details, or examples).
Introduction:
Support:
Transitions:
Conclusion:

Start your response with an introduction that states the topic and your main point about the topic.
Include details to support the introduction.
Use transitions to show how the ideas in the response are related.
End your response with a conclusion that restates the main point.
p. 197 Speaking Review Exercise Skills 1 & 2
1. If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? Use details to support your response.
2. At what age should a person be allowed to drive? Use reasons to support your response.
3. What is the best excuse to give your teacher when you have not done the homework? Use reasons to support your response.
4. What is your favorite day of the year? Use reasons to support your response.
5. What change would you like your government to make? Use reasons to support your response.
Time
15 seconds to plan
45 seconds to speak

Decoding the Question practice:
-do you like to try new kinds of food or eat the same kind of food all the time? Use details and examples to support your response.
-Do you prefer to be in a large or small class? Use reasons to support your response.
Would you prefer to go out to dinner or stay home and cook a meal? Use reasons to support your response.
-Do you think it is better to marry before or after the age of thirty? Use reasons to support your response
Make the Paired-Choice Response
1. If your teacher makes a mistake, is it better to correct the teacher or ignore the mistake? Use reasons to support your response.
2. Is it better to take chances ie or play it safe?
3. Is it better to have a career that pays a lot of money but keeps you away from your family or a career that does not pay so much but allows you time with your family? Use reasons to support your response.
4. Do you make decisions quickly or take your time making them? Use details and examples to support your response.
5. Do you think children should always obey their parents, or are there times when it is not necessary for children to obey?
Intro: state topic & main point
Support (use details!)
Transitions: show how the ideas in the response are relate
Conclusion: restate the main point
A word about parallel structure:
[http://www.eslwriting.org/294/parallel-sentence-structure/]
Appendices
Please write one question on a piece of paper
The question can be ANYTHING that someone can speak about for a minute. For example:
Would you rather eat kimchi every day or McDonald’s every day for a year?
What is your favorite color? Why?
What schoo

Warm up

Use transitional expressions

Use pronouns and determiners to refer back to previous ideas.

Use pronouns and determiners

Adapted by Elizabeth Mormer from the Pearson-Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test

TOEFL iBT Preparation: Cohesion

Example: A group of students really wanted a certain program to be added to the university curriculum. The students presented their request to the university; in addition, they got hundreds of signatures on a petition. Nonetheless, their request was denied.

Example:
I think that the most important characteristic in a friend is honesty. If someone is a friend, then he or she must be honest. I can trust someone only if he or she is truthful. If a friend of mine does not tell me the truth, then he or she can no longer be considered a friend.

Use repeated and rephrased key ideas

Key idea: honesty
Repeated as: honest
Rephrased as: truthful
Rephrased as: truth

What does the pronoun He refer to?
What does the pronoun it refer to?
What does the pronoun himself refer to?
What does the determiner his refer to?
What does the determiner this refer to?

Use pronouns and determiners

Example: A certain student worked very hard on a project. He did all of the work on it by himself, and his professor was very pleased with this work.

Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns.
Determiners are words that accompany nouns to identify the nouns.

It is important to make your written and spoken English as cohesive as possible.
One way to make your written and spoken English more cohesive is to use repeated key ideas.
Another way to make your written and spoken English more cohesive is to use rephrased key ideas.

Using Repeated and rephrased ideas for cohesion

Repeated key ideas: restate the key idea using the same word, or a variation of the same word.

Rephrased key ideas: use a word or phrase which is related or similar to the key idea.

“flow”
Repeated and Rephrased ideas



What is cohesion?

TOEFL Speaking Practice Games
notecard tell a story

Types of Questions:
The word (or phrase) is closest in meaning to...
The word (or phrase) could best be replaced by...
How to identify a word using CONTEXT CLUES
1. Do you need to know the word? If no, skip it, if yes, see #2
2. Determine the part of speech (i.e. noun, verb, adjective)
3. Look at the sentence before and the sentence after. What clues can you find?
4. MAKE A GUESS! (You're probably right)
exercises p. 13, 14, 15
Finding the referent of a pronoun or adjective. A referent generally precedes the pronoun or adjective in the passage; look at the CONTEXT around the pronoun or adjective carefully to find a referent that AGREES with the noun or pronoun.

Note the Main Points as You Read
p.204, 205
Topic:
Make sure that you understand (and take notes on) the topic of the reading passage.
Main points:
Then focus on (and take notes on) the main points that are used to support the topic of the reading passage.
Note the Main Points as You Listen
Topic:
Make sure that you understand (and take notes on) the topic of the listening passage.
Main points:
Then focus on (and take notes on) the main points that are used to support the topic of the listening passage.
p. 208, 209
Plan Before you Speak

Study the question to determine what is being asked. Expect that the question is asking how the ideas in the reading passage and the listening passage are related.
Look at the notes you hae taken on the reading passage and the listening passage, and focus on the main points or topics of each passage. Then describe how the ideas in each of the two passages are related.
Sample Question:
How does the information in the students' conversation add to the information in the notice on thuniversity's policy on pets?
A Notice from the office of the university president
The university president would like to make sure that it is perfectly clear to all university professors, administrators, students and any other members of the university community that university policy requires that no pets be allowed on campus. The only exception to this rule, absolutely the only exception, is animals such as seeing-eye dogs that are trained for use in assisting persons with disabilities. Any other pets, no matter how large or small, are unequivocally not allowed. Anyone who fails to follow this policy, be they faculty, administrators, students or others, will face immediate action by the university.
TOPIC OF READING PASSAGE: notice from the university president on policy against pets on campus
Main points about the notice:
reminds university community about policy against pets on campus (except for persons with disabilities
tells campus community that action will be taken against anyone with pets on campus
Listening Passage
(woman) You saw the notice from the university president?
(man) I certainly did.
(woman) From the tone of the notice, it sounded as if he was kind of upset, don't you think?
(man) I do.
(woman) I wonder why he created this new policy.
(man) Well, it wasn't a new policy....He was just reminding us of a policy that already existed....But, you didn't hear why he put out this notice reminding us about the policy?
(woman) No I didn't. Did you?
(man) Well, I heard something. This is what some of the other guys told me. They said that one of the professors in the Biology Department has a pet snake.
(woman) A pet snake?
(man) Yeah, a really big one. Anyway the snake got out somehow, it escaped, and go into the president's office somehow.
(woman) Oh, no!
(man) Yeah, the president got quite a surprise when he sat down at his desk and felt this snake under his desk.
(woman) Okay. Now I see why the president issued the notice.
Topic of Listening Passage: why the president issued the notice
reasons for issuing the notice:
policy against pets on campus already existed
professor in Biology Department had pet snake anyway
snake escaped and got into president's office
president wanted to remind campus of existing policy
p. 211
Making the Response
Topic:
Start your response with a topic statement that shows how the ideas in the reading passage and the ideas in the listening passage are related
Support
: include the key points of the reading passage and the listening passage in your response.
Transitions
: Use Transitions to show how the ideas are related
p. 213
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