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Renaissance Art

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Samidha Bhatnagar

on 5 November 2015

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Transcript of Renaissance Art

Renaissance Art
Venetian School of Art
Thank You.
Renowned Artists
Renaissance Architechture
Conclusion
Renowned Artists
Giotto Di Bondone
Duccio Di Buoninsegna
Giotto (1266/7 – 8 Jan 1337), was an
Italian painter & architect from Florence, generally co-nsidered the first in a line of great artists contributing to the Italian Renaissance. His masterwork is the dec-oration of the Arena Chapel, credited with being the
father of the Renaissance for his unparalleled grasp
of human emotion, almost always saints & other
religious figures.He was the creator of the Stefa-
neschi Triptych, the Ognissanti Madonna &
the Santa Croce Chapels in Florence.
Basilique Assise
Legend of St Francis
Confirmation of the
Rule by Innocentius III.
The Crucifix
Lamentation
(The Mourning
of Christ)
The Royal Portal
Chartres Cathedral
France
(Gothic Art)







Maestà with
20 Angels &
19 Saints
Rucellai
Madonna
Duccio 1255/60 – 1318/19) was an Italian pain-ter,considered to be the father of Sienese pain-
ting & Western art. He was credited with creati-
ng the Trecento, Sienese school & the Gothic st-
yle. His works include the Rucellai Madonna &
the fabled Maesta. He also painted a work kn-
own as the Stoclet Madonna, the name ste-
mming from its previous ownership by
Stoclet in his collection in
Brussels.
Simone Martini
The Last
Supper
Ognissanti
Madonna
The Devils cast
out of Arezzo
The Coronation of
The Virgin
The Peruzzi Altarpiece
Florence
The
Transfiguration
Maesta
Announcement of the
death of Maria
Crucifixion Triptych
The Annunciation
Martini (1284-1344) a pupil of Ducc-
io added a gracefulness of line & delic-
acy inspired by French Gothic works.
His earliest painting was the large fres-
co of the Maestà of the Palazzo Pubbli-
co, Siena. He also painted the altarpie-
ce St. Louis of Toulouse. Later he com-
posed the Madonna Polyptych & the
Annunciation triptych. His maste-
rpiece was the The
Annunciation.
Blessed Agostino Novello Altarpiece
Resurrection of a child
Alleged Self-portrait
The Carrying of
The Cross
The Burial of
St Martin
St Elisabeth, St Margaret & Henry of Hungary
The Trecento Period
(14th Century)
Known as the Renaissance, the period following the Middle Ages in Europe saw a great revival of classic-
al learning & values of ancient Greece and Rome.
Against a backdrop of political stability & growing prosperity, the development of new technologies, of discovery & exploration was accompanied by a flow-
ering of philosophy, literature & art. Renaissance
preceded by the proto-renaissance, emerged in
Italy in the late 14th century, reaching its zenith in
the late 15th & early 16th centuries.
Masaccio
Masaccio (1401–1428) was the best paint-
er of his generation because of his skill at re-
creating lifelike figures with a convincing sense
of three-dimensionality using linear perspective
& techniques such as vanishing point. He moved
away from International Gothic style and elabo-
rate ornamentation to a more naturalistic mode.
His works are the San Giovenale Triptych, the
Virgin & Child with St Anne, The Expulsio-
n from the Garden of Eden, The tribu-
te money, the Trinity etc.
The
Trinity
The Tribute Money
The Virgin &
the Child
The
Expulsion
of Adam & Eve
The San Giovenale Triptych
The Cinquecento Period
15th & 16th Centuries
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo (1452-1519) was a painter, archi-
tect, inventor, & student of all things scienti-
fic. He epitomized the term “Renaissance
man", with two of his paintings the Mona Lisa
& the Last Supper, admired the most. He saw
science & art as complementary rather than distin-
ct disciplines, & sight as the most important of se-
nses. He was hugely influential as an artist &
sculptor but also immensely talented as an
engineer, scientist and inventor, who
wrote on varying matters of
study.
Mona
Lisa
Vitruvian
Man
The Last Supper
The Lady of the
Dishevelled Hair
Madonna of
the Rocks
Lady with an
Ermine
St John
The Baptist
Michaelangelo Buonarroti
Michelangelo (1475–1564), was an Italian sc-
ulptor, painter, architect, poet & engineer of
the High Renaissance who exerted influence
on Western art. His best known works are the
Pietà & David & The Last Judgment in the Sist-
ine Chapel, Rome. He pioneered the Manneri-
st style of architechture at the Laurentian
Library. His style led to Mannerism, a
major movement in Western art
after the High Renaissance.
Pieta
David
The Libyan
Dividing the water from Heaven
The Last
Judgement
Raffaello Sanzio
Rafael (1483–1520), was admired for
his work in clarity of form & composition
& for Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.
His best known work is The School of Athens
in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. Other
works were the Baronci altarpiece, Mond
Crucifixion,the Brera Wedding of the Virgin
the Oddi Altarpiece. His compositions
take up the static style of
Perugino.
The School of Athens
Madonna of
the Meadow
The Mond
Crucifixion
Saint George
Struggling with
the Dragon
Madonna
Sixtina
The
Transfiguration
Renaissance architecture reflected the rebirth of
Classical culture, originating in Florence in the
early 15th century & spread throughout Europe,
reviving the ancient Roman forms, including the
column & round arch, the tunnel vault, & the do-
me. Renaissance architects found a harmony bet-
ween human proportions and buildings, distingu-
ishing the Renaissance style from the more compl-
ex Gothic characterized by sophistication, comple-
xity, & novelty. Filippo Brunelleschi is considered
the first Renaissance architect.
San Pietro
Rome
Temple of Vesta
Rome
The Milan Cathedral
Florence Bapistry
The Pisa Cathedral
Architectural Theory
The first treatise on architecture was De Re
Aedificatoria by Leon Battista Alberti (1450) slig-
htly dependent on Vitruvius' De Architectura. Nex-
t Sebastiano Serlio produced the Regole Generali D'architettura (1537). In 1570, Andrea Palladio pu-
blished Quattro Libri Dell'architettura in Venice.
These books were widely printed & catered to
the spread of the ideas of Renaissance thr-
oughout Europe intended to not only
be read by architects, but also
by patrons.
The Santa Maria Cathedral
Features of Renaissance Buildings
The Plan
Buildings to have a square, symmetrical
appearance proportionately based on a mo-
dule. The integration of the plan with the fa-
çade was introduced as an issue by Filippo
Brunelleschi, but never into fruition. The fi-
rst to demonstrate it was St. Andrea in
Mantua by Alberti with its developme-
nt in secular architecture by Pall-
adio (16th Century).
Façade
Façades are symmetrical around their
vertical axis. Church façades generally surm-
ounted by a pediment & organised by a syste-
m of pilasters, arches and entablatures, colum-
ns & windows with a progression towards the
centre, the first being the Cathedral of Pienza
(1459), attributed to Rossellino with Alberti in
contribution. Domestic buildings often surm-
ounted by a cornice with regular repetitio-
n of openings on each floor, the cent-
rally placed door marked by a
feature.
Columns & Pilasters
The Roman orders of columns used:
Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Com-
posite. The orders to either be structural,
supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely
decorative, set against a wall in the form of
pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects
aimed to use columns, pilasters, and enta-
blatures as an integrated system. The fir-
st buildings to use pilasters as an in-
tegrated system was in the Old
Sacristy by Brunelleschi.
Arches & Vaults
Arches are semi-circular or (in the Manneri-
st style) segmental, often used in arcades, sup-
ported on piers or columns with capitals. There
may be a section of entablature between the capit-
al & the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of
the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at
the St. Andrea in Mantua. Contrarily, Vaults do
not have ribs, are semi-circular or segmental &
on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault wh-
ich is frequently rectangular. The barrel
vault is seen at the St. Andrea in
Mantua.
Domes & Ceilings
The dome, used frequently, both as a
structural feature & as a means of roofing
smaller spaces where they are only visible
internally. The dome in Brunelleschi’s design
for the Santa Maria Basilique & its use in Bra-
mante’s plan for St. Peter's Basilica became
an indispensable element in church & secu-
lar architecture. The ceilings in these
domes frequently painted or decor-
ated in ornamental fashion.
Doors & Windows
Doors usually have square lintels, set
within an arch or surmounted by a triangu-
lar or segmental pediment. Openings that do
not have doors are usually arched & frequent-
ly have a large or decorative keystone while
the windows may be paired & set within a se-
mi-circular arch, having square lintels & tria-
ngular or segmental pediments, often us-
ed alternately as seen in the Palazzo
Farnese in Rome, begun in 1517.
From the later part of the 15th century, Venice had a distinctive, thriving & influential art scene. Beginning with the work of Giorgione (1477–1510) & the workshop of Giovanni Bellini (1430–1516), major artists of the Venetian school included Titian (1489–1576), Tintoretto (1518–1594), Veronese (1528–1588) & the Bassano (1510–1592). Considered to bring a primacy of colour over line, this tradition was seen to contrast with the Mannerism then prevalent in the rest of Italy, & the Venetian style is viewed to have had a great influence on the subsequent development of painting with the history of later Western art been described as a dialogue between the more intellectual & linear approach of the Florentine & Roman traditions, the more sensual, poetic, & pleasure-seeking of the colourful Venetian school.
Madonna & the child
Cupid's Cherubs
Assunta by
Titian
The Holy Family
The Flagellation of Christ
Renaissance was the revival of arts & culture into Europe, a revolution in itself of the resurgence of creative study and the glorification of artists, painters and sculptures with a renewed connection with Classical Antiquity. The philosophy that underpinned this interest in Classical Antiquity was referred to as ‘humanism’ – a celebration of humanity and its ability and power to create and discover new things. A significant artistic development was the expansion of the types of subject matter artists were allowed to focus on. Mythological scenes & Portraiture from Ancient Greek and Roman myths became a popular subject, bringing to the world a new awakening in the world of Arts & Humanities, with unparalleled skills & talent of the Renaissance artists & their compositions, influencing every sphere of life.
Techniques
Perspective Technique
The idea of perspective is to create a 3D ap-
pearance on a two-dimensional object. It was
developed in the 15th century by Leon Alberti &
Filippo Brunelleschi & is an essential tool to enha-
nce the drawing technique till date. For 500 years
it remained one of the basic principles of Western
art until it was challenged by the ideas of the Cu-
bists in the 20th Century. Two main elements
in this technique are Linear dealing with the
organisation of shapes in space & Aeri-
al dealing with the atmospheric
effects on tones & colours.



Sfumato Technique
Sfumato, is the fine shading that produ-
ces soft, imperceptible transitions between
colours & tones. It is used most often in con-
nection with the work of Leonardo Da Vinci
& his followers, who made subtle gradations
without lines or borders, from light to dark
areas; the technique was used for a highl-
y illusionistic rendering of facial featu-
res & for atmospheric effects.
Chiaroscuro Technique
Chiaroscuro in art is the use of strong cont-
rasts between light & dark, usually bold contr-
asts affecting a whole composition. It is also for
the use of contrasts of light to achieve a sense
of volume in modelling 3D objects and figures.
Specialized uses of the term include chiaroscuro
woodcut, for coloured woodcuts printed &
chiaroscuro for drawings on coloured pap-
er with drawing in a dark medium &
white highlighting.
Fresco Technique
Fresco paintings date back to 1500 BC that bec-
ame very prominent in the renaissance. The Buon
fresco is very permanent & consists of brush paintin-
g onto wet lime plaster (intonaco.) Secco fresco used
on dry plaster, pigment applied using egg also as a b-
inder for the paint. The Mezzo fresco, was an intona-
co that was painted when the surface was almost
dry. The pigment only slightly penetrates the sur-
face of the plaster retaining much of the col-
our that varied considerably when
painting into wet plaster.
Foreshortening Technique
The idea of foreshortening is meant to
add depth to a painting by creating the illu-
sion of objects retreating into a background.
One artist known for this technique was And-
rea Mantegna. The artist records, in varying
degrees, the distortion that is seen by the
eye when an object or figure is viewed at
a distance or at an unusual angle, sligh-
tly reducing the relative size of the
nearer part of the object.
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