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In 1848,, Frédéric Sorrieu,a french artist,prepared a series
Transcript of In 1848,, Frédéric Sorrieu,a french artist,prepared a series
The Age of Revolutions:1830-1848
As conservative government tried to strengthen their power,liberalism and nationalism had an association with revolution in many regions of Europe.These revolution were led by the liberal-nationalists belonging to the educated middle-class elite, among whom were professors,school teachers,clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.The first sudden interruption took place in France in July 1830.
Due to the Greek war of Independence there was a quick movement of the nationalists feelings among the educated groups across Europe.The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognized Greece as an independent nation.
THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
In 1848,, Frédéric Sorrieu,a french artist,prepared a series of four prints about his dream on‘democratic and social Republics’.In the first print there are people who belong to US,Switzerland,France,Germany,Austria,the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy,
Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia followed by one another.
Starting with his print we are going to look at the diverse processes through which nation-states and nationalism came into being in nineteenth-century Europe.
The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
Nationalism began with the French Revolution in 1789.It said that people will constitute the nation and tell it's destiny.
The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) made the people enjoy equal rights under the constitution.A new French flag of the tricolour was chosen.The Estate General was elected by the people.The centralized administrative system created equal laws for all the citizens.A uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
The revolutionaries declared that they would help other peoples of Europe to become nations.
When this news was spread in other countries,few educated middle class people started setting up Jacobin clubs.Their activities moved into Holland,Belgium,Switzerland and much of the Italy in 1790s for the French Armies.Due to the outbreak of revolutionary wars,French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
Napoleon started introducing his changes in other countries as he introduced in France by destroying the democratic rule and introducing the monarchy.The Civil Code of 1804 (the Napoleonic Code) gave all privileges based on birth,maintained equality and also established right to property.He abolished the feudal system and freed the peasants,removed the guild restrictions in towns,improved transport and communication systems.Peasants,artisans,workers ans new businessmen enjoyed this freedom.Businessmen ans small-scale producers of goods realized that all these changes that took place would improve the exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
In the mid-eighteenth-century Europe had no nation-states as we see them today.
Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchy within the territories where people belong to diverse cultures.They did not see themselves as a common culture or share any identity.
A New Conservatism after 1815
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism-a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.Few conservatives realized that from the changes made by Napoleon, modernization could strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy & can make state power more effective and strong.
In 1815, representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia,Prussia and Austria – who had defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe.They made the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with an intention of not changing the changes made during the Napoleonic wars.The main intention was to bring back the monarchies which were removed from the power forcefully by Napoleon to create a new change in favor of private ownership in Europe.
Conservative governments set up in 1815 were autocratic.They did no t tolerate criticism and disagreements and also controlled the activities that questioned the laws & rules of government.They imposed laws to control what was said in newspapers,books,plays & songs.The French Revolution could not continue in inspiring liberals.One of the major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticized the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.
The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class
Aristocracy was the dominant class socially and politically.As people belonging to this class were united there were no regional divisions.They owned estates in countryside & town-houses.They spoke French for managing the international relations and in high society.They were a small group.
The majority of population were peasants.In the west the land was farmed by tenants and small owners.In Eastern and Central Europe the lands were cultivated by serfs.
In Western and parts of Central Europe if there is growth in industrial production and trade then there is growth in towns and in the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market.
Industrialization in France and Germany occurred during the 19 CE.Due to this new social group came into existence:a working-class population, and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen, professionals.In Central and Eastern Europe these groups were smaller in number till late nineteenth century.The ideas of national unity were followed by the educated,liberal middle classes.
What did Liberal Nation Stand for?
The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free.For the new middle classes liberalism means freedom and equality for everyone before the law.Since the French Revolution, liberalism had brought and end for autocratic rule & a constitution and representative government through parliament.19 CE liberals made sure no one destroyed the private property.
Equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal right to vote.Men without property and all women didn't have any political rights.It was only during the period under the Jacobins where all men had a right to vote.The Napoleonic Code again reduced the status of women.During the 19 & early 20 CE women and few men held few opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
In the economic sphere, liberalism means freedom of markets and the an end to the state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.During the 19 CE this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes.
In 1834, a customs union or zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.This union put an end to the taxes paid on some imports and exports and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.Creation of network of railways made the movement of goods easier and controlled the economic interests.
During the following years of 1815,the liberal-nationalists feared that others would bring them under their control.Secret societies were held in many European states to train revolutionaries-a person who supports a political change and spread their ideas.At this time being revolutionary means fight for freedom and liberty.
Few of them thought that creation of nation-states was also necessary.And one of them was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.He was born in Genoa in 1807 and became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.When he was 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. When he came back he immediately found two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne,in which there were young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.His ideas and actions frightened the conservatives.Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
Culture played an important role in creating a nation-art and poetry,stories and music helped nationalists express their ideas & feelings.Romanticism which was a cultural movement tried to develop a particular for of nationalist sentiment.Romantic poets and artists criticized the glorification of reason and science & focused on emotions,intuition and mystical feelings.They wanted a common cultural past as the basis of nation.
The German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) felt that the German culture need to be developed among people-das volk.Folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances made people understand the importance of a nation.B this the message of nationalism reached every person even though he/she was illiterate.Ex-Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music.
After Russian occupation the Russian language was imposed every where and polish language was abolished.In 1831 few of them went against the Russian rule.Following this,Polish language was used in Church gatherings and in religious occasions.As a result many priests &bishops were send to jail and were severely punished.
Finally the use of Polish language was seen as a symbol for the national struggle .
There was an increase in population in the first half of 19 CE.So,most of them wanted jobs than employment.People from rural areas migrated to cities.Small producers especially in the Textile Production faced a tough competition the cheap machine made goods from England.There was domination of aristocracy in Europe due to which peasants suffered a lot.When the food prices increased or there is bad harvest then the number of poor people increased in the country.The year 1848 was one such year,due to which most of the population in Paris were on roads.So,the National Assembly guaranteed the right to vote for men above 21 years and right to work.Natinal workshops were also held to provide employment to the people.
In 1845,weavers in Silesia revolted against the contractors who supplied them with raw materials,gave them orders but paid them less.
Hunger,Hardship and Popular Revolt
A revolution was led by the educated middle classes in the year 1848.They put out their demands for the nation-states.
Political associations voted for an all-German National Assembly in Frankfurt.On 18 May 1848,831 representatives were elected.This parliament was dominated by the middle classes.
Even though women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations they are not guaranteed the right to vote during the elections of The Assembly.
Monarchs started realizing that these revolutions can only be ended by giving them concession to the liberal-nationalist revolutionaries.Hence, in the years after 1848, the autocratic monarchies of Central and Eastern Europe began to introduce the changes that had already taken place in Western Europe before 1815.
The Revolution of The Liberals
After 1848, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution.Nationalists feeling & sentiments are moved away by the conservatives in order to have state power and political domination over Europe.
The liberal initiative of nation-building was brought under control by the monarchy and the military. From then,Prussia took over the movement for national unification.Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I,was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
The nation-building process in Germany had the dominance of Prussian state power.Those Prussian measures and practices often became a model for the rest of Germany.
Germany-Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation
The Making of Germany and Italy
During the middle of 19 CE y Italy was divided into seven states.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had formed a secret society called Young Italy to form a unitary Italian Republic.The ruling groups of Italy felt that it has offered them a great economic development and their political dominance over others.
Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat.Like other educated persons of the Italian group,he spoke French better than Italian.
In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.However,as most of the population were illiterates they were not aware of liberal-nationalist ideology.
Artists in the 18 and 19 CE personified nations by portraying them as female figures.They did not connect nations with a women's life but gave an abstract idea of it's definite form.So,female figure became a literal and symbolic form of nation.
During French Revolution artists used female figure to portray Liberty,Justice and the Republic.Attributes of Liberty-the red cap or the broken chain & Justice-a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales.In France she was christened Marianne with characteristics of Liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.Germania became the allegory of the German nation.She wears a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stands for heroism.
Visualizing the Nation
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans.A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.During the 19 CE Ottoman Empire thought to strengthen itself through modernization but wasn't successful.One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
The Balkan states were very jealous of each other and each of them wanted more power on others.This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
The European powers in the nineteenth century began to oppose imperial domination.Anti imperial moments developed everywhere because they wanted national unity.
People everywhere developed their own way of nationalism.
Nationalism and Imperialism
In Britain the formation of nation-state was not a result of sudden revolution but it was a result of a long-drawn-out process.There was no British nation before 18 CE.s. The English parliament,had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict.The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.The British parliament was dominated by its English members.The Scottish Highlanders were unable to follow their culture.
Ireland was a country divided that has been between Catholics and Protestants.Protestants dominated Catholics.So,Catholics revolted against them but failed the revolt led by Wolfe Tone and his United Irishmen (1798).Then they were included with the United Kingdom in 1801.The new 'British Nation' had a dominant English culture.The symbols of the new Britain – the British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
The Strange case of Britain