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Donna Qualley

on 19 March 2018

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Transcript of Karoline

Karoline's Prezi

"what is important is not just how you say it, not just language in any sense, but who you are and what you’re doing when you say it.” (Gee 167)
"One and the same act can count as different things in different contexts, where context is something people actively construe, negotiate over and change their minds about (Duranti 1997; Duranti and Goodwin 1992)” (Gee 168)
“What is important is not just language, and surely not just grammar, but saying(writing)-doing-being-valuing-believing combinations” (Gee 171)
“Discourse with a capital ‘D’ is composed of distinctive ways of speaking/listening and often, too, writing/reading coupled with distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, believing with other people and with various objects, tools and technologies, so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities engaged in specific socially recognizable activities.” (Gee 171)
“Discourses are not units or tight boxes with neat boundaries. Rather they are ways of recognizing and getting recognized as certain sorts of whos doing certain sorts of whats” (173)
Primary discourse – early way of being adopted as a sense of self and social foundation (“everyday language” of an individual)
Lifeworld Discourse – “the way that we use language, feel and think, act and interact and so forth, in order to be and ‘everyday’ (non-specialized) person.” (Gee 174)
Early barrowing – “the process by which families incorporate aspects of valued secondary-Discourse practices into their primary Discourses . . . as a way to facilitate children’s later success in valued secondary Discourses.” (Gee 175)
“we must always act, think, value and interact in ways that, together with language, render who we are and what we are doing recognizable to others (and ourselves). (Gee 175)
“the identities (the whos) we take on are not rigidly set by the states of our minds or bodies, but are, rather, flexibly negotiated in actual contexts of practice.” (176)
Features are “employed always in the context of actual situations, and at different times in the life history of groups of people. . . make[ing] such judgments intrinsically provisional.”(178)
Dominant Discourses: “Discourses that lead to social goods in a society” (Gee 180)
students draw on a combination of "master" and "little" cultural narratives to challenge systems (Sharma)
"writing about literacy experiences reveals underlying cultural differences. Student writing about reading and writing from different cultures reflected how the individual's epistemological independence, agency, and authority are viewed by their societies." (Sharma 106)
The differences in learning styles due to underlying cultural values are suggestive of the different degrees to which different cultures value the individual's independence, agency, and authority over knowledge (Sharma 107).
1. inherently ideological
Secondary Discourses: “Discourses that lead to social goods in a society” (Gee 180)
2. Discourse itself defines what counts as acceptable
3. also relational to other, ultimately opposing, Discourses
4. concerned with certain objects, concepts, viewpoints, and values at the expense of others
5. intimately related to the distribution of social power and hierarchical society
Mushfaking: "make do with something less when the real thing is not available. . . partial acquisition coupled with meta-knowledge and strategies to 'make do.' (Gee 201)
Acquisition: a process of acquiring through exposure to models without formal teaching. (Gee 189)
Learning: "process that involves conscious knowledge gained through teaching or through certain life experiences that trigger conscious reflection" (Gee 189)
"Discourses are mastered through acquisition, not learning" (Gee 190)
Are we always mushfaking to some extent? Always circling the discourse?
Realizing you're mushfaking
When we speak we are always making clear:
who we are
what we are doing
"We are each of us not a single who, but different whos in different contexts. In addition, one and the same act can count as different things in different contexts." (Gee 168)
"a person can speak a language grammatically, can use the language appropriately and still get it 'wrong'. This is because what is important is not just how you say it, not just language in any sense, but who you are and what you're doing when you say it" (Gee 167)
The ability to perform in a socially appropriate way. Saying "the 'right' thing at the 'right' time and in the 'right' place." (Gee 167)
Literacy Narratives
"frames of meaning
that are
situated and epistemologically significant"
(Sharma 108)
literacy narrative assignments "force students to buy into prevailing hegemony" (Sharma 106)
Has the potential to imply that coming to a secondary discourse (especially if it is a dominant discourse) is somehow coming to "Literacy" (with a capital L)
Literacy and Discourse
Shaped of and by
Learning/acquiring the dominant discourse to participate
Infusing another secondary discourse (perhaps a lifeworld discourse)
“But I found—as I worked through the combination of voices—that I was healing. Losing my fear of the straight world because it wasn’t a con anymore. I wasn’t disguising my version of the truth in words and structures designed to make it palatable to the rest of the world” (Foss 31-2)
Moving into a “single being” (Foss 32).
“I knew that my successful reinvention would depend on how facile I could become with words. I read constantly—trying to teach myself all the things I’d never had instruction in” (Foss 29).
Cultural Literacy
Primary Discourse
Secondary Discourse
Dominant Discourse
Lifeworld Discourse
“I knew that my successful reinvention would depend on how facile I could become with words. I read constantly—trying to teach myself all the things I’d never had instruction in” (Foss 29).
By having to move back and forth between Discourses, Lu cannot unconsciously acquire her school Discourse; she can only learn it because she has to keep remembering and instructing herself what to do, not do, what is permissible to say and what is not. But she develops meta-knowledge of each Discourse or what Gee calls “powerful” or “liberating”
“Ungrammatical non-standard English that in its broken rhythms seemed to define the broken rhythms of our lives on the streets” (Foss 29). Implies that there is something about it congruous with the lived experience of the world.
“In our house each school year would begin with my mother’s careful instruction: ‘Don’t write in your books so we can sell them at the end of the year.’ The remark was echoed in public by my teachers, but only in part: ‘Boys and girls, don’t write in your books. You must learn to treat them with great care and respect’” (Rodriguez 524).
“The scholarship boy is a very bad student. He is the great mimic; a collector of thoughts, not a thinker; the very last person in class who ever feels obliged to have an opinion of his own. In large part, however, the reason he is such a bad student is because he realizes more often and more acutely than most other students...that education requires radical self-reformation." (Rodriguez 529)
By bringing the secondary Discourse of English and Western Literature into the home, Lu’s parents were engaging in early borrowing. English became part of Lu’s primary Discourse, her way of being an everyday perso
“arbitrary conventions created by people who’d been dead for centuries and whose lives bore no resemblance to my own” (Foss 29)
“Constantly having to switch back and forth between the Discourses of home and school made me sensitive and self-conscious about the struggle I experienced every time I tried to read, write, and think in either Discourse“ (Lu 438)
“Here is a child who cannot forget that his academic success distances him from a life he loved, even from his own memory of himself.” (Rodriguez 518)
"By 'logical identity' I mean the natural (or Oriental) way I organize and express my thoughts in writing.” (Shen)
Liminal Spaces
Self-aware Mushfaking: “one thing I learned early on was that people are judged by their use of language” (Foss 29)

Acquiring the Discourse of the dominant group was . . . a means of seeking alliance with that the group and thus surviving the whirlpool of cultural currents . . . I adopted the view of language as a tool for survival. It came to dominant my understanding of the social and historical scene and to restrict my ability to participate in that discussion” (Lu 444)
“But I found—as I worked through the combination of voices—that I was healing. Losing my fear of the straight world because it wasn’t a con anymore. I wasn’t disguising my version of the truth in words and structures designed to make it palatable to the rest of the world” (Foss 31-2)
picked up from that experience. Difficulty defining words.
“I’d use expressions like ‘spun’ or ‘rig’ and spend the next five sentences trying to define the world in the context of the streets” (Foss 31)
Somewhere Between
By "ideological identity" I mean the system of values that I acquired (consciously and unconsciously) from my social and cultural background.” (Shen)

“Negatively (for that is how this idea first occurred to me): my need to think so much and so abstractly about my parents and our relationship was in itself an indication of my long education. My father and mother did not pass their time thinking about the cultural meanings of their experience. It was I who described their daily lives with airy ideas. And yet, positively: the ability to consider experience so abstractly allowed me to shape into desire what would otherwise have remained indefinite, meaningless longing in the British Museum. If, because of my schooling, I had grown culturally separated from my parents, my education finally had given me ways of speaking and caring about that fact” (Rodriguez 532).

Self-aware Mushfaking: “one thing I learned early on was that people are judged by their use of language” (Foss 29)

“The scholarship boy is a very bad student. He is the great mimic; a collector of thoughts, not a thinker; the very last person in class who ever feels obliged to have an opinion of his own. In large part, however, the reason he is such a bad student is because he realizes more often and more acutely than most other students...that education requires radical self-reformation." (Rodriguez 529)

Powerful Literacy
Reclaiming my language—proving that being trailer park trash doesn’t preclude intelligence—has gone a long way towards bringing me comfort in my new world.” (Foss 32)
Early Barrowing
Moving into a “single being” (Foss 32).
Does literacy imply illiteracy?
Important to frame a literacy narrative as a passage of secondary discourses rather than a coming to some kind of capital L "Literacy" that is essentially a Dominant Discourse.
Education separates you but then allows you to recognize and care about the fact that you are separated.
Literacy and Discourse
Examples in Foss's Narrative
Literacy Events

Art class, prison English class, college English class

Literacy Practices

Letter writing, avoiding writing (the irrationality of writing without an express purpose or destination), writing without grammatical conventions (in the street context), writing with grammatical conventions (college context)

Literacy Behaviors

Writing on the tablets, writing and tearing up the “letters”,  

Literacy Sponsors

Prison system, community college (with placement exams), university (professors who allow or disallow language constructions)
“To be culturally literate is to possess the basic information needed to thrive in the modern world.” (Hirsch 83)
“Only by piling up specific, communally shared information can children learn to participate in complex cooperative activities with other members of their community” (Hirsch 85).
“In an anthropological perspective, the basic goal of education in a human community is acculturation, the transmission to children of the specific information shared by adults of the group or polis.”

“In contrast to the theories of Plato and Rousseau, an anthropological theory of education accepts the naturalness as well as the relativity of human cultures: it deems it neither wrong nor unnatural to teach young children adult information before they fully understand it.

The anthropological view stresses the universal fact that a human group must have effective communications to function effectively, that effective communications require shared culture and that shared culture requires transmission of specific information to children.” (Hirsch 85-6).
Learning not acquiring.
This helps me a little bit understand how Hirsch imagined himself to be a educational liberal. A liberal critique of education systems is that they encourage conformity through acquisition; students are subconsciously acculturated to sit still, raise their hands, respect authority, etc. Hirsch is proposing something different that, in theory, feels (felt-sense) more transparent and equal opportunity. We’ll teach them all the same thing, give them all access.
But a couple issues: 1) Just because something is theoretically/technically public access doesn’t mean everybody has equal public access, other factors come into play. 2) Without acquired meta-awareness of the inherent social positioning and historical bias of the list it becomes immediately not the objective, neutral thing Hirsch seems to imagine. And instead is the very problematically acculturating force of a liberal critique of education.
This positions the literacy list as a list of benevolence (a position I am immediately skeptical of): ‘We, the educated adult populace, bestow upon you, oh young ones, the knowledge of ages, allowing you to participate in our great empire’.
Ok, I’m laying it on a little thick here. But, is there a problem with the idea that we don't want children to have a conversation the adults can’t understand? And how does it extend to trying to get other groups of people to conform?
Link to Hirshc's full list: http://intendtogether.pressible.org/files/2012/01/Hirsch-Appendix.pdf
Hirsch: This list is
Cultural Literacy: A History
Why is it important to know some texts and accompanying cultural allusions, but not others?
A mushfaking puffin
(A plushfaking muffin)
“The notion that the knowledge base of its citizens has a direct effect on the health of American political discourse has been around since the nation’s founding” (Hatley 1).
“What constitutes an effective citizenry? Put individually, what must a person know and do, to be an effective American citizen? (Hatley 3)
Are these actually the same question?

“the argument has less to do with linguistic constructions per se and more to do with the foundations of American culture and – here lies the anxiety – its respectability and perceived civility on the world stage. . . they were likewise at a point of deciding how an American might look and sound, especially vis a vis dominant Western European[s]” (Hatley 5)
Discourse communities are partly defined by how they are recognized by others as distinct from other discourses (connect to Gee).
So we can become concerned not only with our own discourse and we fit into it but with how we create the discourses we want to be a part of in the first place.
Does this concern come from an inherently privileged position? Or would a better way to put that be that it comes from a literate position? We can become concerned with shaping a discourse once we have acquired it and are thus not entirely preoccupied with simply getting by? But this conscious shaping also requires a learned element if it is to be presented as a list.
So is Hirsch in favor of a learned shaping of the discourse but not an acquired one? That lists of important ideas are an appropriate distillation of a Discourse but the shifts that occur when groups mushfake and negotiate Discourses are not?
“We should not that a wide plurality of the United States was summarily excluded from this cultural ideal at the point of its inception.” (Hatley 6).
“The essential question of what must a person know to be an effective American citizen arose with new force when the U.S. experienced an unprecedented boom in immigration around the turn of the 20th century (Hatley 7).
1919 John C. Almack: Americanization: A Suggested Outline for the Teachers of Aliens: “Any course in history and civics would be incomplete without a direct effort to instill a love of out country into the hearts of the coming Americans”
“representation is outward-facing” (Hatley 9).
It becomes a question of “who and what could rightly viewed as part of the American tradition. . . And the schools and universities of the United States were a key battleground in this moral and political crusade” (Hatley 11)
Review of "The Closing of the American Mind: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/16/books/review/Donadio-t.html
"Why Schools Fail To Teach Slavery's 'Hard History":
Our progress as a nation can be no swifter than our progress in education. Our requirements for world leadership, our hopes for economic growth, and the demands of citizenship itself in an era such as this all require the maximum development of every young American's capacity. . . Our twin goals must be: a new standard of excellence in education--and the availability of such excellence to all who are willing and able to pursue it. -Special Message to the Congress on Education.
February 20, 1961
In this whole area of civil rights, the equality of opportunity for employment and education is not just for the benefit of the minority groups, it's for the benefit of the nation so that we can get the scientists and the engineers and all the rest that we need. - Kennedy-Nixon Presidential Debate , Oct 13, 1960
I BELIEVE that every child has the right to as much education as he has the ability to receive. I believe that this right does not end in the lower schools, but goes on through technical and higher education--if the child wants it and can use it.

I want this not only for his sake, but also for our Nation's sake. America badly needs educated men and women. And America needs not just more education, but better education. -Presidential Policy Paper No. 1: Education. November 1, 1964
Our schools hold the future of America in their hands. They will decide whether that future is enlightened, free, and informed, or shrouded in the darkness of ignorance. . . A recent Gallup Poll found that an overwhelming majority of Americans want their schools to do two things above all else: to teach students how to speak and write correctly and, just as important, to teach them a standard of right and wrong. . .

Finally, I'd like to address a few words to all you students. . .you, too, can help make America's educational system second to none. If your teachers don't give you homework, ask them why not. If discipline is lax, see how you can help to make it better. It's your right to learn, your right to the opportunities that a good education can bring. Remember, you're not only studying for yourself but for your family, your community, your country, and your God. So, go for it, kids. Give it your best effort. - Radio Address to the Nation on Education 
August 24, 1985
“In the preface to his 1987 book, he wrote ‘Cultural literacy constitutes the only sure avenue of opportunity for disadvantaged children, the only reliable way of combating the social determinism that now condemns them to remain in the same social and educational condition as their parents.” [x] While one might quibble with the determinism of ‘one sure avenue,’ we should grant the essential progressivism of this aim. (Hatley 16)
“Indeed, the intransigent, complicating factor in seeking to identify ‘what every American should know’ is the deep history, outlined in this report, of American efforts to define a particular and often exclusionary American identity through the establishment of a set of linguistic, cultural, or educational criteria. ‘What every American needs to know,’ considered in this light, hinges less on the content of the what and more on the question of who is included in the American.’” (Hatley 17).

Is the Culture War Over?
“The culture wars were on. Into them ambled Hirsch, with his high credentials, tweedy profile, reasoned arguments, and addictively debatable list. The thing about the list, though, was that it was—by design—heavy on the deeds and words of the ‘dead white males’ who had formed the foundations of American culture but who had by then begun to fall out of academic fashion” (Lui 3)
“A generation of hindsight now enables Americans to see that it is indeed necessary for a nation as far-flung and entropic as the United States, one where rising economic inequality begets worsening civic inequality, to cultivate continuously a shared cultural core. A vocabulary. A set of shared referents and symbols. . .

. . . Yet that generational distance now also requires Americans to see that any such core has to be radically reimagined if it’s to be worthy of America’s actual and accelerating diversity. If it isn’t drastically more inclusive and empowering, what takes the place of whiteness may not in fact be progress. It may be drift and slow disunion. So, first of all, Americans do need a list. But second, it should not be Hirsch’s list. And third, it should not [be] made the way he made his.” (Liu 4)
All of this is grounded in some problematic conceits. E.g.: "Americanness and whiteness are fitfully, achingly, but finally becoming delinked” (Hatley) (Article written in 2015)
People become literate in schma: “bundles of concepts and connotations”. And, “pattern recognition requires literacy in particulars.” (Liu 5)
“Literacy in the culture confers power, or at least access to power. Illiteracy, whether willful or unwitting creates isolation from power.” (Liu 7)
“Lists that catalyze discussion and even debate, however, are plenty useful.” (Liu 8)
Albert Murray 1970 The Omni-Americans: “The essence of American life is that it relentlessly generates hybrids.” (from Liu 11)
“The list, quite simply, must be the mirror for a new America. As more diverse voices attain even more forms of reach and power we need to re-integrate and reimagine Hisch’s list of what literate Americans ought to know” (liu 11)
“The Internet has transformed who makes culture and how.” (Liu 13)
Could the "list" just be the entire internet?
"Why Doesn't America Read Anymore?": https://www.npr.org/2014/04/01/297690717/why-doesnt-america-read-anymore
“hey hey, ho ho, Western culture’s got to go”
“Only by piling up specific, communally shared information can children learn to participate in complex cooperative activities with other members of their community” (Hirsch 85).
“What is different now is the ubiquity of the technology that is replacing every old medium” (Greenfeld)

"Faking Cultural Literacy": https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/opinion/sunday/faking-cultural-literacy.html
Is Google Making Us Stupid?
"Nope, we just already are!" -Michelle
Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument, and I'd spend hours strolling though long stretches of prose. That's rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration often starts to drift fter two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking for something else to do. I feel as if I'm always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle (Carr 2)
intellectual technologies: "the tools that extend out mental rather than our physical capacities" (Carr)
Wolf worries that the style of reading promoted by the Net, a style that puts 'efficiency' and 'immediacy' above all else, may be weakening our capacity for [deep reading]. . .When we read online, she says, we tend to become 'mere decoders of information.' Our ability to interpret text, to make the rich mental connections that form when we read deeply and without distinction, remains largely disengaged. (Carr 8)
“It is clear that users are not reading online in the traditional sense; indeed there are signs that new forms of ‘reading’ are emerging as users ‘power browse’ horizontally through titles, contents pages and abstracts going for quick wins. It almost seems that they go online to avoid reading in the traditional sense” (Carr 7)
The malleable human brain responding to stimulus in the form of technology.
"Just as there's a tendency to glorify technological progress, there's a countertendency to expect the worst of every new tool or machine (Carr 31).
The quality of digital media poses one kind of problem for the reading brain; the quantity of information available to the wired reader poses a different and more serious problem. (La Farge 3)
“We might visualize these effects as developing in two directions—vertically (a piling up) and horizontally (a spreading out).

In addition to this vertical accumulation, literacy has literally spread out across the century, reorganizing an array of economic, legal, political, and domestic activities. The increased powers accorded to print have sharpened the need for reading, and increasingly, writing, to navigate life” (Brandt 651-652)

Literacy ‘piles up’ in the twentieth century, among other ways, in the rising levels of formal schooling that begin to accumulate (albeit inequitably) in families. . .Literacy also ‘piles up’ in the twentieth century in a residual sense, as materials and practices from earlier times often linger in the scenes of contemporary literacy learning.
Chasing Literacy: Adding Acceleration
"Composition should renew its interest in reading pedagogy and research."
New reading practices require "new approaches to literacy education" (Keller 1)
"we embrace the wealth of information and the technology options available to us, but we also feel overwhelmed (Keller 4)
Piling up: literacy takes on multiple forms used to perform daily activities (Keller 5)
Spreading out: emerging forms of literacy pile up as texts and practices
Speed as an influential force has become a defining feature of literacy change. . .This is due to the rise of a culture of acceleration, a gathering of social, educational, economic, and technological forces that reinforce values of speed, efficiency, and change. Literacies are bound up in and tied to these forces, so as these forces influence cultural changes, literacies change with them,
“Perceptions of literacy are not merely tied to but bound up in and flow through how we see ourselves, how we relate to other people, and how we understand what counts as literacy. These perceptions are tied to identity and how we act as users of literacy. Connections between literacy and identity are complex and fraught with issues of power…” (Keller 40-1)
“The school-success narrative contributes heavily to students’ sense of their literature identity. Although they may not enjoy the means by which they have to achieve those ‘objective literacy skills,’ they tend to value and to cling to the narrative. The alternative of doubting the narrative would result in too much cognitive dissonance for most students, especially those already in or close to the middle-class lifestyle.” (45)
“Composition scholars T.R. Johnson (2003) and Laura Micciche (2007) have examined and argued against the view that pleasure and emotion run counter to serious, thoughtful engagements. Students have confidence and agency with the texts of digital media and popular culture in general, yet they adopt the dominant discourse regarding such texts -- they are simple, frivolous, and probably bad for us.” (53)
“The participants readily spoke of writing processes and strategies, but they conveyed looks of confusion when asked about reading strategies" (56).
“Literacies accumulate, expanding the forms and practices of reading and writing. Yet, as this chapter has suggested, a relatively narrow view persists as to what counts as reading and writing. Previous educational experiences and cultural narratives shape students’ views of what counts as reading and how to do various kind of reading. As composition teachers incorporate more forms of reading and writing, particularly those that do not seem like typical school-based literacies, teachers may have difficulty aligning students’ expectations with their own appreciation of what such literacies may offer.” (65)
Wakah. . .wakah. . . wakah. . Confusion arises when definitions of literacy expand.
"the ‘rapid proliferation and diversification of literacy’ near the end of the twentieth century offers an ‘unprecedented’ challenge for readers and writers who have to ‘piece together reading and writing experiences from more and more spheres, creating new and hybrid forms of literacy where once there might have been fewer and more circumscribed forms'. . .Speed has become a defining feature of contemporary literacy. This is due to the rise of a culture of acceleration, a gathering of social, educational, economic, and technological forces that reinforce values of speed and efficiency” (Brandt from Keller 68-9).
“Certainly, this is not the first time people have felt rushed by the speed of culture of overwhelmed by information. . . [However] it would be a mistake, I think, to reduce very different historical periods to a simple equivalence or to claim the current situation is nothing new.” (Keller 70)
This historical literacy moment is unprecedented!
Each literacy innovation has its own situation
“Paradox of literacy”: “literacy enables and demands; technologies of literacy provide opportunities and conveniences but also expectations and challenges. Readers have access to more texts than ever before, but we are also aware of that many more texts” (Keller 71).
“There’s also a significant contradiction in this educational model: read and learn quickly, but read and think deeply”(Keller 77)
Commodification of attention.
“As curricula take on more texts and more objectives, teachers and students proceed through them at greater speeds. This is acceleration, an imperative of ‘network society’” (83)
“In a culture of acceleration and information overload, attention has immense value because so many competing options exist for gaining that attention” (89).
How might we view “attention” as a commodity in an age of intense acceleration as described by Keller?
Are fast and slow rhetorics both necessary? Do sociocultural factors lend to students leaning one direction or another?

"The Dungeon Master": https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/10/04/the-dungeon-master
Comparing literacy events is fraught.
"Technologies are not isolated and neutral, but linked to a combination of instituional, social, cultural, and political forces that shape their use. We might be wise to hesistate before attributing a perceived 'hyper attention' to the effects of interactive media alone" (125)
"Key to this section is Keller's conclusion that students are not adequately trained to multitask in an educational environment and within this environment, do not know how to deploy needed research strategies. Keller makes clear that educators often assume technological expertise on behalf of the students, but in reality, they often have difficulty navigating tasks that have a heavier "cognitive load." (Ch 5 group)
As composition continues to expand its sense of writing and incorporate genres students more readily identify with other, non-school domains, it is essential that the field pursues a more nuanced understanding of how students perceive domains and the literacy practices that accumulate within and between those domains. . . [Students] have thoughtful, engaging practices with literacy and rhetoric. Finding ways to help students draw on the literate, rhetorical resources they possess may bolster not only what they do with reading and writing in college but in other domains as well, allowing them to realize, appreciate, and capitalize on the potential of their everyday literacies (Keller 152).
When confronted with a staggering number of texts, readers must respond with filtering strategies and tools to direct their limited time and attention wisely. With the great variety of textual shapes, they also must learn to adapt reading strategies to different texts and contexts.
"Acceleration is one response to accumulation, to the overabundance of texts and media options: when faced with so many texts, readers tend to read faster, skimming, scanning, and sorting. Proficient readers throughout history have most likely responded to an abudance of texts with filtering strategies (Blair 2003). However, the demands of contemporary literacy mean that more people must develop more methods of oscillating between faster and slower forms of reading and between hyper and deep ranges of attention" (Keller 153).
Participatory Cultures
Affinity Spaces
– that is, a hybrid creature which is part fan and part academic (hence the title of this blog). The goal of my work has been to bridge the gap between these two worlds. I take it as a personal challenge to find a way to break cultural theory out of the academic bookstore ghetto and open up a larger space to talk about the media that matters to us from a consumer's point of view" (Jenkins).
A participatory culture is a culture with relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing creations, and some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices. A participatory culture is also one in which members believe that their contributions matter, and feel some degree of social connection with one another (3).
interest level
Characteristics of Participatory Cultures:

— the capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem-solving

— the ability to adopt alternative identities for the purpose of improvisation and discovery

— the ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world

— the ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content

— the ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details.

Distributed Cognition
— the ability to interact meaningfully with tools that expand mental capacities

Collective Intelligence
— the ability to pool knowledge and compare notes with
others toward a common goal

— the ability to evaluate the reliability and credibility of different information sources

Transmedia Navigation
— the ability to follow the flow of stories and information
across multiple modalities

— the ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information

— the ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.

consensus cultures
discussion cultures
Here, members often work together to achieve a specific goal or outcome. “Something must be completed, solved, or fixed.”
participants elect to “create, share and comment within a safe and supportive environment.”
creative cultures
individuals engage in discussion cultures such as on-line news forums and blogs because they are interested in the subject matter and want to learn what others have to say.
places where people interact around a common passion
o What the space is about? What is the stuff of the space?
o How is the stuff designed and organized?
o How do people interact with the stuff?
o “The content organization emerges from the work of designers of the space and the interactional organization emerges from people who use these spaces—their actions and interactions in the space

o What “generates” or gives the space its content (Both the designers of the space and people who use it can be generators of content)
o Provides access: How do people enter this space? What gives users access to the content in this space?
diverse ages and backgrounds
accommodates interests and passions
populated by choice
skill level range
no “grade inflation” or “dumbing down,”
demands general knowledge, allows specialty
link to outside spaces
uses adaptable tools
flexible leadership and status
allows for high and low contribution
focused on knowing
honors tacit knowledge
lots of socialization
no difference between work and play

many ways to enter
always more to learn attitude
encourages individual and "network" knowledge

Writing Is a Technology That Restructures Thought
Literacy is imperious. It tends to arrogate to itself supreme power by taking itself as normative for human expression and thought (Ong 23)
primary orality
secondary orality
"the orality of cultures with no knowledge at all of writing" (Ong 23).
the electronic orality of radio and television, which grows out of high-literacy cultures" (Ong 23).
"Recalling sounded words is like recalling a bar of music, a melody, a sequence in time. A word is an event, a happening, not a thing, as letters make it appear to be" (Ong 25).
Literacy Shifts
"The technology of writing was not merely useful to Plato broadcasting his critique of writing, but it also has been responsible for bringing the critique into existence. . [Plato's] philosophically analytic thought, including his analysis of the effects of writing, was possible only because of the effects that writing was having on mental process." (Ong 29)
Writing itself has social causes. . . writing interacts massively with all sorts of social structures and practices" (Ong 35).
Writing is only one of the various developments making for the transformation of consciousness and society, but once writing takes over, it appears to be the most crucial development of all.
Writing Separates:
source of communication
verbal precision
academic learning
'high' language
planum of existence
access to it
other social activities
'low' language
other dialects
Orality does not encourage protracted analysis. Writing does. Thus it develops a sensibility, a cognitive possibility, that was otherwise impossible.
"Only in recent centuries have human beings generally had the idea that a language could be written. . . But to say that language is writing is, at best, uninformed. It provides egregious evidence of the unreflective chirographic and/or typographic squint that haunts us all." (Ong 26-27)
Functionally literate persons. . .are not simply thinking and speaking human beings, but chirographically thinking and speaking human beings. The fact that we do not commonly feel the influence of writing on our thoughts shows that we have interiorized the technology of writing so deeply that without tremendous effert we cannot separate it from ourselves" (Ong 24).
Literacy is regarded as so unquestionably normative and normal, the deviance of illiterates tends to be thought of as lack of a simple mechanical skill. . .Such views of writing as simply a mechanical skill obligatory for all human beings distort our understanding of what is human if only becuase they block understanding of what natural human mental process are before writing takes possession of consciousness (Ong 23)
The Chirographic Squint
McLuhan described how the “globe had contracted into a village” because electronic technologies allow for people to receive information from any point in the world at the same time. He was referring to radio, TV, and satellite technologies. Today, the internet has made the instantaneous movement of information through interactive and synchronous online environments: social media, blogs, video games, on-line courses, just to name a few examples. Digital technologies also invite kind of secondary visualization (graphics, images). Today writing means more than “words on the page.”

Leonard Shalin argues that the rise of patriarchal societies corresponds and is a product of cognitive shifts that can be attributed to the use of alphabet systems
Essentially, alphabet systems favor the right side of the brain which is also the side associated with culturally masculine traits.
One thing at a time
Rod vision

everything at once
big picture
see patterns in complex images
cone vision
This controversial, but interesting theory suggests that the period of roughly 1500-2000 (since the invention of the printing press), which was defined by ideas of textuality and individual composition that are represented inside the parenthesis, basically “interrupted” the broader arc of human communication, Today, in the internet age, the theory suggests that we are slowly returning to a state in which orality—conversation, gossip, the ephemeral—describes our media culture. In other words, this theory suggests that the digital age is not just a leap into the future, but also a return to practices and ways of thinking that were central to oral human communities.
The Alphabet vs. The Goddess
The Gutenberg Parenthesis
What Will We Have Made of Literacy?
Chasing Literacy: Accumulation
Full Presentation
Illustrative Examples
Side Excursions
Textual Examples
Supporting Points
Topic Group
Passing Thoughts
"Tomorrow becomes today whenever we envision what we will have done" (Miller 494)
"In such passages, we enter into the future perfect mode as we turn history back upon itself to consider what will have been achieved if we take action now. As Alexander notes on the prospects of literacy, this mode involves the 'deeply political act' of conceptualizing 'ourselves as individual and collective agents' and the giving 'public shape to that agency.' As Alexander's piece makes clear, the literacies we desire arc through the trajectory of the future perfect to envision the actions that will have enabled us to make good on our aspirations" (Miller 501).
"WWW diversified the types of literacy practices that could be studied, and it relativized academic discourse as a result.To be interesting in language and literacy was to be interested in how people bake cakes, plant seeds, jump rope, repair or decorate their dwellings" (Brandt 506).
"But my thoughts are less with t he limitations of Ways with Words and more with the failures of our field to take up its call. As a field, we remain largely text-centric and focused on teaching for professional success and conformity; we are too apt to assign deviance to students instead of ourselves. Ethnography remains too rarely employed. . . Spreading communicative competence - the skills and knowledge necessary to engage intelligently with the sounds and signs of fellow human beings - must be the most urgent goal in language education" (Brandt 509).
"I like to think of literacy theory in terms of how it accounts for what matters in the lives of the people with whom I work, namely immigrants" (Vieira 510)
"precisely becuase they were working to understand literacy locally, literacy scholars in the 1990s were also tracking literacy's mobility. . . It is a testament to both their methodological rigor and the genius of their insights that they attended to both the local and the global with such boldness. . . If they had had the privilege to spend time with Carolina and Lidia twenty years ago when their migration journeys began, I believe they would have done their stories justice" (Vieira 517)
"racially emptied rhetorical relation to Head's embodied protests signals the pedagogical and political dilemmas about race/intentionality and literacy that this essay hopes to examine (Kynard 520).
"The specificity of institutional racism and the distinct histories of an African American presence in higher education impact us all and still limit accounts of who and what counts as writing" (Kynard 526).
"In understanding race-radical literacies, we can't simply apply preexisting or trending tenents of literacy scholarship in order to squeeze black folk into whatever theoretical templates have the most currency at the moment. . . If black students from 1925 Fisk to 2015 Mizzou can resist and rewrite entire institutional frameworks that render their raced-gendered bodies as invisible and illegible, the least we can do is match their force and vision (Kynard 527).
"such work understands the development of literacy as a deeply political act, as one tied fundamentally to how we conceptualize ourselves as individual and collective agents and then give public shape to that agency" (Alexander 530).
Perceptions of Literacy – Beliefs people have about literacy and the way it exists outside of an academic setting. Perceptions of literacy shape the way that people think about and practice reading and writing, as well as how we relate to others and form our own identities.
Life Domains – Literacy is shaped by larger contexts, or "life domains," such as home, school, or work. The social institutions associated with these domains, such as family/home, come with rules, penalties, and social conventions that enable certain types of literacies. The literacies of these domains are structured by the different values, rules, resources, and relationships of these social institutions. Domains also have boundaries, and the transgressions of these boundaries can lead to tension and even shifts in identity.

Overload: having access and awareness of the access to more than is possible to consume
Paradox of literacy: Literacy gives us more knowledge but also lets us know how much we are missing. Makes more available, but that availability makes us more aware of how much is impossible to access.
Pedagogization of Literacy – The influence that educational and cultural definitions of literacy on how people regard reading and writing. This privileges "legitimate" types of writing over certain other types, such as graphic novels or blog-writing. Education's version of literacy influences the way people perceive literate identity, suggesting that there are "correct" things they should be reading and writing in order to be literate people, in addition to determining how people value other types of literacies.

School Success Narrative – Idea that achieving "objective literary skills" in school, no matter how uninteresting or unenjoyable, is important to success. This narrative contributes to students' sense of their own literate identities. Questioning this narrative can be disorienting for students, as it is deeply entrenched in American culture.

Autonomous Literacy – In reference to this study, the idea that "complex" reading ("classics") will positively influence one's reading abilities in the future.
Remediation: A blurring of older and newer forms of media as they borrow and refashion each other (e.g. David knows how to find scores on ESPN's website because it's built similarly to their TV station). This is important here, not just to think about technologies and mediums influencing one another, but to think about how different literacies influence one another.

Fast Rhetoric/Slow Rhetoric: “In fast rhetoric, rapid fire, visual intensity, wit, and originality win out over [the] lengthy exposition, explicit logical relations, sobriety, and order [utilized by slow rhetoric].”
Competitive consumption: consuming the latest thing to “maintain or attain a particular social status” and sense of advantage (73).
Multitasking: Keller develops a nuanced definition of "multitasking" which includes both the simultaneous performance of tasks and an alternate switching between tasks. He makes clear that this is not a new concept, but this concept does have a new significance in a digital era that encourages and enables it with technologies like social media, online news sources, other websites, video games, smart phones, etc. Keller makes clear that in order to build a pedagogy for this technological epoch, educators need to familiarize themselves with the way that multitasking works, because "not all multitasking is equal" (103). Different tasks carry "different cognitive loads" and this is heavily dependent on the purpose for which they are engaged, more so than the density of the material.
Task: Specific activity, includes purpose and context
Tactic: Reading Strategy
Text: Message, includes the genre and medium
Technology: Device and interface used to access the text, includes search engines and other on-screen interfaces
Training: Experience and knowledge of the four other factors
Acceleration: shortening intervals between new forms of technology and innovation. Notably an acceleration of the time it talks new technologies to be available to the masses. (73)

Network society: society where everything is affected by the connectivity of globalization (71)
Paradox of literacy: Literacy gives us more knowledge but also lets us know how much we are missing. Makes more available, but that availability makes us more aware of how much is impossible to access.
Hyper Attention: Borrowed from Katherine Hayles, Keller defines hyper attention as "characterized by desiring 'multiple information streams' and having a 'low tolerance for boredom'" (118). For reference, this is what scares Carr the most.

Deep Attention: Again, borrowed from Katherine Hayles, deep attention is "'a single-object focus that is sustained" (118). For reference, this is what Carr wants everyone to do.
Filtering: This involves selecting content that fits the reader's goals and experiences within a given text. Although "filtering" occurs with non-internet reading too, the "inordinate scale of information" we encounter on the web encourages this behavior.
Foraging: According to Keller, foraging is "a purposeful wandering across texts, evaluating and possibly gathering and using materials along the way" (117). The best example of foraging is when Diana skims articles for differences and searches those exerpted passages in Google.

Oscillating: As Diana skims the articles, or as Tim scans various artworks and critiques, they each vary their reading speed and depth according to the perceived importance of the passage. Keller defines this act as oscillating.

"Faced with a historic surge of insurrectionary activism that led to the most recent march on Washington, we are pressed to consider whether we wish to be observers or participants in a history that is spiraling downward (Miller 500).
ENG 510: Rhetoric:Literacy to Electracy

SNL: "Black Jeopardy"
Full transcript