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CANCER AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

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chi hon sia

on 16 August 2013

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Transcript of CANCER AND BIOTECHNOLOGY

Benefits:
No open incisions
Less damage to healthy tissue
Minimal postoperative pain
Fewer side effects
Short hospital stay
Quick recover
Ability to repeat the procedure if new tumors develop
CANCER & BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduction
A brief history
Cancer causes 1 in 7 deaths
NO CURE !
ONLY 2 fully recovered from it :(

What exactly is cancer ?
Uncontrolled division of abnormal cells
Basically tumour(s)
Caused by mutations
Multi-step process
Types of cancer
Solid
E.g. Sarcoma cancer
Liquid
E.g.
Leukemia
Inherited
-Hereditary factors
Non-inherited
-Environmental
factors
Cheesy Facts
Angelina Jolie underwent
double

mastectomy
to lower the possibility of getting inherited breast cancer from
87% to 2%
Hallmarks of
Cancer
Doug Hanahan and Bob Weinberg
Identification
Screening
Available for a number of cancers
E.g. uterine, breast & cervical
Carcinogenesis

Initiation of cancer
pick up cancer before it reaches a more serious stage
Treatment
Types of treatment
Surgery
Monoclonal antibodies
Targeted molecular therapy
Ideal screening test:
Surgery
Removal of tumour(s)
Multi-disciplinary team
Future outlook: Robot-assisted surgery
Monoclonal antibodies
Do not recognise cancer cells
Antibodies with complementary shape bind to cancer cells
Recognise as cell invasion
Phagocytosis
Common form associated with high death rate
Effective treatment available
Procedure should be
safe
relatively inexpensive
Example
Inherited breast cancer
HER2-positive Receptors permanently on Increase growth rate Breast tumour
True positive & True negative
False positive & False negative
Trastauzumab- Herceptin
-Target the protein on the surface of cancer cells
-Switch off the growth factor receptor (HER2)
Current treatment
Limitations:
Include monoclonal antibodies
Tag and remove the product of abnormal gene (protein)
Targeted Molecular Therapy
Diagnosis
Biopsy
examination of tissue removed from a living body
Case Study- Inherited Kidney Cancer
-Abnormal Von Hippel & Lindau (VHL) gene
-Missing VHL protein Overactive proteins that are normally suppressed by VHL protein Overgrowth of cell
Current Treatment
Imaging
where and how
Computed Tomography (CT) scan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan
-Target the overactive protein (Not the VHL protein)
-Suppress Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Temsirolimus
Case Study- Leukaemia
- Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
- Presence of philadelphia chromosome
-Production of abnormal protein, bcr-abl
Current Treatment
-Drug imatinib- Glivec
-Target bcr-abl that drives the CLL cells
- Prolong remission for patients who only receive chemotherapy
Treatment Decision-making
Cure
Adjuvant Therapy
Palliative use
Pathologists role in cancer diagnosis
Cure
-Removal of localized tumour(s)
-Chemotherapy for initial stage cancer
Adjuvant Therapy
- Prevent recurrence
- Eliminate orphan cells through chemotherapy
- Severe/ lifelong side effects
Assess small tissue samples and look for
particular mutations
or
rearrangements in chromosomes
Palliative use
- Reduce pain and distress
- Increase the number of quality life year
- Not a cure
Future
Highlights
-Importance of Extracellular Matrix(ECM) in Cancer regulation


-Case Study of the Naked Mole Rat


-Anti-Angiogenesis treatment

Example:
Cancer and ECM
-Cancer cell reversion
-Signaling between ECM and cells
-http://www.ted.com/talks_mina_bissell_experiments_that_point_to_a_new_understanding_of_cancer.html (part of video that includes the picture showing the reversion of cancer cell*)

-Cells take cues from the surroundings (Microenvironment) on how to develop.
Nanoknife system
Case study of naked mole rats
6 thin needles (electrodes) around tumour
Electrical pulses to puncture permanent nanometer-sized holes into the tumor
Triggers a "cell suicide"
Unique abilities
No MENOPAUSE
Negligible loss of blood vessel elasticity
Maintain near perfect muscle structure even during old age
Able to repair mitochondrial damage
Breathe in extremely low [O2]
Suppress pain in Skin
Cancer resistant

Anti-cancer mechanism
HMW-HA (High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan)
Produced in larger concentration than other mammals
5x larger molecular size then other mammal’s Hyaluronan
2x higher affinity to HA+ Increased sensitivity to HA signalling

Production of HMW-HA
Overexpression of HAS2 and under expression of HYAL1
2 unique AA difference between Naked Mole Rat and other mammals.
2 Asparagine AA is 100% conserved in other mammals but in NMR, it is replaced by Serines.

Effects of HMW-HA
Causes gene activation and expression of P16 gene.
P16 gene is a tumor suppressor gene.
Cause cancer cell to self-destruct and tumors never to form

Coupled with p53 and pRB gene, causes early contact inhibition, where it occurs at way lower cell density.

Possible Development
Similar molecule is used in anti-inflammatory treatment for arteritis and cosmetics
However, difficult to re-engineer it into all body cell in the body ( Over ambitious and potentially hazardous )
Overexpression of HAS2 in Human tissue cell -> Human cell secrets HMW-HA

Anti-Angiogenesis treatment
Bevacizumab (Avastin Q)
Monoclonal antibody
Recognizes and bind to VEGF
VEGF receptor cannot be activated
Growth of new blood vessel to be inhibited

Types of cancer it can treat
Glioblastoma
Metastatic colorectal cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer
Metastatic renal call cancer

Side Effects

Bleeding
Clotting in arteries
Hypertension
Protein in urine
Birth defects

Hong Wei , Xin Xuan , Chi Hon , Peng Yun
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