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Dreams: Oral Presentation

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Kevin Ruder

on 9 May 2013

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Transcript of Dreams: Oral Presentation

History, The Science Of, and Interpretations DREAMS Dreams In History THE SCIENCE OF DREAMING Dream Interpretations Ancient Egypt To the Egyptians, dreams were thought to be part of the supernatural world. Dreams were messages from the gods sent to the villagers during the night as a warning for disaster or good fortune. The Egyptians were the first to attempt to interpret their dreams and 1300 years before Christ, they produced the earliest dream book with over 200 dream symbols. Our ancient ancestors believed that dreams were important messages from the gods. They were convinced that these communications were a divine guidance. Somehow, the gods bestowed upon the dreamer a spiritual truth that could heal and solve problems. Our ancestors also believed that this truth could only be deciphered with the help of priests or oracles. The ancient Egyptians believed that dreams related to the adventures of the soul when it leaves the body during sleep. Dream Interpretation Priests acted as dream interpreters and recorded these dreams in hieroglyphics. People with vivid or significant dreams were believed to be blessed. Also, people who had the power to interpret dreams were upheld and seen as divinely gifted. Dream interpreters believed in the theory of opposites: to dream of death for example was an omen of long life. "Dream Incubation" When a person was having issues in their life, they usually turned to the help of the gods. They were instructed to sleep in a temple, and when they woke the next morning a priest, who was called the Master of the Secret Things, would be consulted for the interpretations of that night's dream. Greece Greek Philosophy During the Hellenistic period, Greek philosophy centered around the rationalization of knowledge, so the Greeks made use of Egyptian, Jewish, Babylonian and Persian dream theories. Although each nations' interpretation of dream symbols differ, current dream books reflect some of their beliefs. Their belief in the power of a dream was so strong that it even dictated the actions of political military leaders. Symbols in dreams may vary by dreamer; dreams are not universal and can be interpreted differently by different people. Example: the symbolism of a gun to a black-smith and a war veteran Healing Power The Greek temples were originally centers of worship, but the healing energies of dreams soon turned them into hospitals. The dreamer would describe his dream to the priest who had the ability to uncover the hidden truth behind the dream. The following day and night would be spent in prayer, ceremony and preparation by the dreamer for a guiding explanation or physical healing. Aliens symbolize a struggling to deal with change, nonacceptance, and alienation.
Blood could indicate that one is being drained of creativity and energy; menstrual blood symbolizes fertility or cleansing.
Cancer could be an actual indicator that one has the disease, but also symbolizes a lack of control in life, hopelessness, or a pessimistic approach.
Death is occasionally an omen, but is also representative of renewal, purging. Seeing a corpse represents devitalized condition or lifeless routine. THE HISTORY OF DREAM SCIENCE Early Civilizations explored dreams for information about a group or person. The Greeks even created detailed methods to cure sickness. People that helped diagnose dreams were located in "dream hospitals" named Asklepion sanctuaries.

In the 1800s people became enchanted with dreams once more. They tried to find out the effects of sounds and smells on the type of dreams that people had. Eyes are symbolic of windows into the soul. Looking into someone's eyes indicates a deep spiritual connection. Problems with eyes indicate a lack of intuition.
Faceless people indicate that one is wondering who one really is, becoming an unemotional zombie. Someone has lost their identity.
Gods could be an actual message. They symbolize that one has strayed from the true path and one requires a remainder to return to the path. Dreaming that one is a god indicates that one has strong personal power and a positive self-image.
Hearts indicate that one should follow his/her heart. Dreaming that something is wrong with one's heart indicates that one is ignoring his/her physical or emotional needs. Light bulbs symbolize great ideas that one might have. Dreaming of a burnt out or broken bulb symbolizes a creative dry. STAGES OF SLEEP Stage One Stage Two 20 minutes
Rhythmic spikes in brain activity- sleep spindles
Heart rate and blood pressure decrease
Decrease in body temperature Stage Three Production of delta brain waves (long waves) mixed with shorter waves.
Transition period between light and deep sleep Transition period between consciousness and sleeping
Many also experience sudden muscle contractions called hypnic myoclonia, often preceded by a sensation of starting to fall.
eyes move very slowly and muscle activity slows Money symbolizes the resources one does not have and all the materials that one desires. Dreaming of large quantities of money signifies that one desires great wealth and prosperity. Dreaming of finding money by random chance suggests that one may be met with a surprise opportunity or good luck.
Nightmares often indicate that one has a pressing issue that he or she must address in reality; however, nightmares can happen by random chance or by scientific factors.
Owls symbolize multiple things. Owls can be symbols of wisdom and experience, but they can also be omens of death, change, or loss. Many cultures consider owls to be divine animals. Stage Four Only produces Delta waves
Considered "deep sleep"
Groggy feeling if woken up during this period
*FUN FACT*- people who sleepwalk or wet the bed often do this during this stage! Stage Five REM sleep
Most dreaming occurs during this stage.
Increased brain activity
20-30 minutes
Also known as "paradoxical sleep" Paralysis symbolizes inaction or intense fear. One is either unwilling or unable to move right now. If the dream is pleasant, one is looking to avoid responsibility. If the dream is dark or scary, something is burdening one.
Questions present in dreams symbolize that one has an important question that he or she has been asking himself or herself in reality. The dream question will usually not be worded exactly like the question in reality, but it will follow a very similar premise or structure. Red is recognized as a very powerful dream symbol. Red symbolizes passion, sex, fear, rage, and violence. Red is the color of one's deepest instincts, strongest passions, and one's most outrageous desires.
Scorpions indicate that one is accompanied by an untrustworthy figure and should exercise caution because one might be ensnared into a dangerous situation.
Tattoos portray a particular image or reputation of one. If one dreams of getting a tattoo, one is attempting to establish a certain reputation. If one dreams that he or she has an unwanted tattoo, people already have a particular idea about him or her. If one dreams of regretting a tattoo, one is unsure of a recent decision. A utopia suggests a keen optimism and belief in the possibility of perfection, whether from divine intervention or human effort. Dissatisfaction in a dream utopia indicates that one's rebellious side is being revealed. Dreaming about not being included in a utopia indicates that one must focus more closely on his or her spiritual life and personal needs because his or her life is out of balance.
A disembodied voice indicates that one is receiving a clear, concise message from his or her subconscious mind. One should listen to this message; however, this message may be in code. War symbolizes instability and insecurity. Dreaming of war suggests that there is a possibility of instability or violence in one's future. Dreaming of nuclear war indicates that one's life is fundamentally unstable. X-Rays indicate that one is focusing on the inner workings of his or her body. One is looking within himself for flaws or imperfections. One desires to find a greater meaning or discover himself.
The color yellow is a symbol of cowardice, but also of direction and guidance. Dreaming of the sun might offer someone spiritual guidance. Frightening yellow objects could indicate that one fears something greatly and must deal with it someway.
Zombies can be symbols of stoicism and inactivity. Dreaming that oneself is a zombie indicates that one may have no power in life or is inactive and alienated; however, the presence of zombies in dreams could just be a typical nightmare. Heraclitus The first steps into modern dream interpretation were taken in the 5th century B.C. when the Greek philosopher Heraclitus suggested that a person's dream world was something created in their own mind. Plato Plato pondered dreams and what they might mean. He realized how much dreaming could affect a personality or someone's life.

In the Phaedo, he tells how Socrates studied music and the arts because he was instructed to do so in a dream. Aristotle Aristotle attempted to explain dreams as the products of purely physiological functions.
He thought that dreams could be indicators of conditions within the body.
He hypothesized that external stimuli are absent during sleep, so dreams are manifestations of a profound awareness of internal sensations which are expressed as dream imagery. Hippocrates Father of modern medicine
He believed that while some dreams could be divinely inspired, most were symbolic of things going on inside the body. In interpreting these dreams he, along with many other Greek interpreters, used a standardized method of interpretation. Pillar at Bergama Symbol of medicine Artemidorus Artemidorus published "The Interpretation of Dreams", a five-volume work.
Two types of dreams:
Forecast the future
Contemporary matters--affected by state of body and mind Asclepieions Sick people who slept in these temples would be sent cures through their dreams. Dream interpreters aided the medicine men in their medical diagnosis. Rome Egypt Sacred Traditions Christianity Islam God speaks to men and women in the form of visions when the recipient is asleep.
The Prophet himself received much of the Qur'an in dreams. Tibetan Buddhism Dreams are a dress rehearsal for death.
We should work to gain conscious control over the dreaming process, as this still will enable us to have some influence over what happens when we die. Shamanic Cultures The shaman serves as a channel between the material and the spiritual worlds.
Dreams are thought to give access to both the elemental forces of nature and to the spirit world, where the shaman can contact the souls of the departed.
The spirits are all around the living and are capable of influencing them, for good or evil. Dreams are mentioned continuously throughout the Bible.
Example: Joseph is warned by God in a dream about the dangers that his infant son, Jesus, would face. To fully be able to interpret one's dream, one should keep a regularly updated dream journal. The journal does not need to be complex or insightful; it is merely a brief recollection of the dream. Interacting with one's dream after the sleeping process is over helps cement the events of the dream in the dreamer's memory and allows for the dreamer to remember important details, which may prove crucial in later interpretations. Simple Example of a Dream Journal/Dream Diary Dreams Dreams are a crucial element in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Chronicle of a Death Foretold featured dreams as omens of death and causers of confusion and turbulence. The novel also explores the interpretations and misinterpretations of dreams.

This presentation expands further on the premise of dreams, investigating the history, science, and symbolization and interpretations of dreams. SIGMUND FREUD The person we most associate with the science of dreaming.
1899- The Interpretation of Dreams
Thought of dreams as largely symbolic and allowed us to sort through the repressed desires of our everyday life in our unconscious minds. Kleitman and Aserinsky Now what Kleitman and Aserinsky were expecting to find was that the sleeping brain was a resting or dormant brain. THEY COULD NOT HAVE BEEN MORE WRONG They discovered that the sleeping brain fluctuates in a pattern of roughly 90 minutes. Also known today as our sleep cycle.
In 1953 sleep research advanced dramatically with the invention of the EEG. Two researchers at the University of Chicago who investigated the sleeping brain were Eugene Aserinsky and Nathaniel Kleitman. WHAT IS R.E.M SLEEP? R.E.M. sleep stands for "Rapid Eye Movement" sleep, as one's eyes dart back and forth underneath their eyelids. At this stage, people become somewhat paralyzed, and they lose control of their voluntary muscles. However, the most interesting thing that Aserinsky and Kleitman found, was when a subject was woken during R.E.M. sleep, they reported bizarre and often illogical tales- what we know as dreams.

*NOTE: People do not only dream in REM sleep, however it is the time that people experience the most vivid dreams. To Review:
end of the sleep cycle (90 minutes)
Brain phases in and starts creating crazy narratives So... Why so busy sleeping brain and what is so important? THE IMPORTANCE OF DREAMING AND SLEEP Dreaming is actually very important to our lives because during the period of dreaming, our brains are making connections between real life experience which makes us better people!

Research now shows that Freud was wrong about his assumptions as we dream about thing we did the previous day. This allows us to:

Decide what to keep
Decide what to toss
And find links between events *Fun Fact*
Dreams have led to important discoveries in Science as Dmitri Mendeleev came up with the periodic table structure in a dream REM sleep allows us to also-
Try new things without risk (testing possibilities)
Process emotions that our waking brains cannot. Now these emotions associated in dreams that are felt are usually real. Dreams allow a narrative for our emotions to give them a form you can more easily deal with.

For Example: Boyfriend troubles In Sum, Dreams allow us to regulate:
experiences LUCID DREAMING When one becomes aware of the fact that he or she is dreaming and actually direct the narrative of the dream. WHY DOES THIS HAPPEN? PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BRAIN NOW WE MUST UNDERSTAND THE During lucid dreaming your DPC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex) wakes up causing you to gain a sense of self awareness and thus control the dream PARTS OF THE BRAIN INVOLVED IN DREAMING PONS- responsible for immobilization during REM sleep
allows brain to have realistic experiences without acting them out. Occipital Cortex
involved in the visual aspect of dreams
adjacent regions have a high level of activity Cerebral Cortex and Thalamus
responsible for movement, hearing, and touch in dreams
areas for smell and touch are not activated and thus rarely occur in dreams Invisibility is a symbol of invulnerability. If one dreams that he or she is discomforted with invisibility, then he or she feels as if nobody cares about him or her.
Jumping symbolizes a leap of faith or taking a risk. The situation in a dream mirrors an obstacle or situation that one is trapped in in reality.
Keys symbolize a gateway to secrets and valuables. Dreaming of a key indicates that one has the chance to discover something important or personally valuable. Now the ability to control and see things in your dreams can convey important meanings within the life of the person. When one analyzes his or her dream, the important events or objects in the dream can lead to an interpretation of dream symbols. The Interpretation of Dreams eventually led to fictional Santiago Nasar's end in Chronicle of a Death Foretold by Marquez. The history, science and interpretations behind dreams are applicable today.

Dream on.
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