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Evidence for Evolution

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Eva Wu

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of Evidence for Evolution

Evidence for Evolution Tristan Fraser, Katey Spence, Eva Wu, Jennifer Xu Morphology Biogeography Patterns of Species Plate Tectonics Ring Species The Evolution of the Horse Hoof Moby-Dick Mermaid Skink Octopus eye vs. Vertebrate eye Traits found in amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds Earliest horse-creature. Developmental Biology Whales Genetic Development Embryonic Development Bibliography It's Quiz Time!!!! Evolutionary Genetics Mutation Evolutionary Genetics is the broad field of studies that resulted from the integration of genetics and Darwinian evolution = Genetic Variation Random Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling Natural Selection is the only evolutionary force that can produce adaptation, and preserve genetic states over a long time, despite obstacles. The major obstacle of Evolutionary Genetics is to describe how the evolutionary forces make up the patterns of biodiversity displayed in nature The study of how species vary across
space and time. Patterns of Species Plate Tectonics Ring Species Biogeography was simply a record of inheritance. And here's how evolution works... Random Genetic Drift Mutation is the biggest source of new genetic variation within populations Sea lions Iguanas Birds The study of the form and structure of organisms. Differences between octopus and vertebrate eyes. Kind of a boring video. Ignore him stuttering. Ew... feet. Origin Point Specimens from Wallace's Treasure Chest Fuzzy! Developmental biology studies how organisms develop into mature adults from single cells Chestnuts Remainders of horses' other toes and Ergots! Show how species adapt to their environments and lifestyles over time. Also fuzzy... Four Components of Natural Selection:

- Variation
- Inheritance
- High rate of population growth
- Differential survival and reproduction Adaptive radiation is the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. Natural Selection Embryonic Development Genetic Development “The more closely
related any two species
are, the more similar
their development.” Ontogeny Phylogeny Adaptive Radiation: All vertebrate embryos follow a very similar development pattern
They only become distinguishable in later stages of development
They have a similar development due to having the same set of genes that give the same instructions for development
In later stages, organisms diverge from this. “Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny” Simple changes in the genetic code could affect an organism’s development. The early embryos of organisms in fact appear to be very similar to each other. Paleontology Popularized by Charles Darwin Sup. BMP4 Gene Bone Morphogenetic Protein, No. 4)
Produces the BMP4 protein, which can signal cells to begin producing bone. Directs beak development
Directs what parts of the embryo develop into what “Laying out a variety of architectural plans including signaling which part of the embryo is to be the backside and which the belly side.” BMP4 BMP4 Common Ancestor Humpbacks, Blue Whales, Fin Whales, etc. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/guess-embryo.html Aetiocetus Understanding Evolution. (n.d.). Biogeography: Wallace and Wegener. Retrived from http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_16

Unknown. (n.d.). Biogeography. Retrieved from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BIO48/29.Biogeography.HTML

New York Times. (2007). From a Few Genes, Life’s Myriad Shapes. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/26/science/26devo.html?pagewanted=5&_r=0

PBS. (n.d.) .Comparative Embryology: The Vertebrate Body. Retrieved from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/2/l_042_03.html

PBS NOVA. (2009). What is Evo Devo. Retrieved from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/what-evo-devo.html

Mongabay. (2013). Subterranean “Moby Dick” Mermaid Lizard Discovered in Madagascar. Retrieved from
http://news.mongabay.com/2013/0116-moby-dick-mermaid-lizard.html#

Teach them Science. (n.d.). What Evidence is there for Evolution? Retrieved from http://teachthemscience.org/evidence

Scholarpedia. (2011). The Blind Spot. Retrieved from http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/The_Blind_Spot

Unknown. (n.d.). Photobiology of the Retina. Retrieved from http://www.photobiology.info/Rozanowska.html

PMC. (1997). Squid Pax-6 and Eye Development. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20103/

Backgrounders. (n.d.). The Evolution of the Horse. Retrieved from http://www.txtwriter.com/backgrounders/Evolution/EVpage03.html n. (1997). Developmental Biology. Retrieved from http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/lines/IICdevelopmental.shtml

PBS. (n.d.). Comparative Embryology; the Vertebrate Body. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/04/2/pdf/l_042_03.pdf

Unknown. (n.d.). Comparing Embryos. Retrieved from
http://home.honolulu.hawaii.edu/~pine/book1qts/embryo-compare.html Species: a group of living organisms
consisting of similar individuals capable
of exchanging genes or interbreeding The study of prehistoric life. Morphology Genetics Developmental Biology Biogeography REALLY RARE Fossils that prove the evolutionary relationship between one species in one era, and another in an earlier or later era. They have many or some distinct features from both those organisms Pakicetus Ambulocetus Rodhocetus 1) Biologos. (n.d.). What is the genetic evidence for evolution? Biologos. February 4th, 2013. From http://biologos.org/questions/genetic-evidence
2) Florien, D. (August 11th, 2008). The almond tree’s beneficial mutation. Patheos. February 4th, 2013. From http://www.patheos.com/blogs/unreasonablefaith/2008/08/the-almond-trees-beneficial-mutation/
3) Georgia Southern University. (n.d.). Population Genetics. Georgia Southern University. February 4th, 2013. From http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/harvey/lect/lectures.html?flnm=nsln&ttl=Population%20change%20and%20natural%20selection&ccode=el&mda=scrn
4) Moran, L. (January 2nd, 1993). Random Genetic Drift. Talk Origins. February 4th, 2013. From http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/genetic-drift.html
5) Wade, M. (January 14th, 2005). Evolutionary Genetics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. February 4th, 2013. From http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/evolutionary-genetics/
6) Wikipedia. (August 2012.). Adaptive Radiation. Wikipedia. February 4th, 2013. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptive_radiation
7) Yahoo Answers. (2011). Give an example of adaptive radiation…?. Yahoo Answers. February 4th, 2013. From http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110131101352AAJUwI6.
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