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Introductions and Conclusions

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Christina Wenger

on 27 March 2015

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Transcript of Introductions and Conclusions

Introductions and Conclusions
Freshman English
S#1: Summarize
Summarize your main points. The easiest way to do this is to state your thesis in new words.
Conclusions
Conclusions are particularly important in argument essays because it's the last chance you've got to get the reader to see things from your point of view. So, I've found three points, that if you include them in your conclusion, you'll likely leave the reader on your side. I call these the Triple Ss.
Bring your reader in by introducing the broad topic of your essay.
In the opening sentences, announce the general subject about which you’ll make an argument.
BUILD CONTEXT

Guide your reader to your thesis by focusing in on your topic.
In the next few sentences, narrow the focus down to a particular aspect of that subject, so the reader understands that you are not dealing with all the questions arising from that subject, but with one particular question or area.
CREATE A FOCUS

The last sentence should be your thesis statement--the narrow argument of your paper.
For Example:
When people “grow up,” they gain experience and knowledge but lose their innocence and sense of wonder. In other words, the price paid for growing up is a permanent sense of loss.
This tradeoff is central to “The Secret Lion,” by Alberto Alvaro Rios, a story that presents a twelve-year-old boy's view of growing up--everything changing around him.
The key symbols in the story reinforce its main theme: change is inevitable and always accompanied by a sense of loss.
When people “grow up,” they gain experience and knowledge but lose their innocence and sense of wonder. In other words, the price paid for growing up is a permanent sense of loss
.
In this example, I can tell the general subject is growing up. The writer has presented an idea that provides a cornerstone for the rest of the essay.
For Example:
The Whole Paragraph
This tradeoff is central to “The Secret Lion,” by Alberto Alvaro Rios, a story that presents a twelve-year-old boy's view of growing up--everything changing around him.
At the end of the introduction, announce the opinion about the subject so the reader understands what you’re arguing for in the essay.
THESIS
.

For Example
The key symbols in the story reinforce its main lesson: change is inevitable and always accompanied by a sense of loss.
Another Example
For centuries philosophers have debated the question of whether man is innately evil. William Golding poses this question in his realistic novel Lord of the Flies. Set on a tropical island during World War II, the novel begins when schoolboys from Great Britain are being flown to safety and their plane is shot down. No adults survive, and the boys are left to govern themselves and get rescued. William Golding uses symbolism in the form of the conch to represents the concept of society. The boys’ evolving relationship with the conch illustrates Golding’s theme that humans, when removed form the pressures of civilized authority, will become evil.
In this paragraph, the writer has narrowed down from the universal, broad topic to the text the writer will examine.
Here's the specific point the writer will argue is true.
A Synthesis Example:
Since the beginning of time, we've looked to the sky with wonder. Since the 1960s, we've looked to the sky with the possibility that we may someday be able to explore it, too.
A Synthesis Essay Example:
Since the beginning of time, we've looked to the sky with wonder. Since the 1960s, we've looked to the sky with the possibility that we may someday be able to explore it, too.
Yet, that possibility appears to be shrinking as funding for a national space exploration program receives cut after cut. Some argue that other parts of our government should receive monies designated for space exploration, while others argue that space exploration in and of itself is too risky a venture. However, in our current depressed economy and tense political environment, spending money on space exploration may serve as a boon.

In order to benefit both the economy and international relations, the country should further develop the national space program, but do so carefully in order to protect space's "wilderness."
A Synthesis Example
Yet, that possibility appears to be shrinking as funding for a national space exploration program receives cut after cut. Some argue that other parts of our government should receive monies designated for space exploration, while others argue that space exploration in and of itself is too risky a venture. However, in our current depressed economy and tense political environment, spending money on space exploration may serve as a boon.
A Synthesis Example
In order to benefit both the economy and international relations, the country should further develop the national space program, but do so carefully in order to protect space's "wilderness."
Example:


"The Secret Lion" reminds its readers that the world will change, and that change will hurt.
The other two Ss
The other two Ss stand for So What? and Show Off. In your conclusion, you need to tell your reader why what you've written about matters. Why should he or she care about your point. Also, it's the last chance you have to impress your reader, so you'll need to show off to prove you're in charge of the English language. You can usually answer So What? and show off at the same time.
For Example
This lesson, that we can't hold on to what we know and expect, comes hard to the central character in "The Secret Lion." But, it's no secret that it comes hard to each of us. The bigger message that "The Secret Lion" forces us to see is that change, though inevitable, can be met with grace, and when that happens, so does magic.
The Example All Together
"The Secret Lion" reminds its readers that the world will change, and that change will hurt.
This lesson, that we can't hold on to what we know and expect, comes hard to the central character in "The Secret Lion." But, it's no secret that it comes hard to each of us. The bigger message that "The Secret Lion" forces us to see is that change, though inevitable, can be met with grace, and when that happens, so does magic.
A Synthesis Example
Even though the nation must be careful to protect space while exploring it, developing the nation's space program funding will benefit both the economy and our relationships with other countries.
Our future will be better because of the money we put into the space program today. As we reinstate our spending on space, our universe will broaden. The child sitting in the backyard will be free to dream, not only of going to space or seeing Mars, but of finding planets and stars beyond what we can imagine. For, when we fund space exploration, we're not just funding strong employment numbers and healthy international relationships--we're funding dreams.
Questions?
A Synthesis Example
Even though the nation must be careful to protect space while exploring it, developing the nation's space program funding will benefit both the economy and our relationships with other countries.
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