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Project Based Learning

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Wilma Sifonte

on 30 July 2016

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Transcript of Project Based Learning

21st Century Student Outcomes & PBL
21st Century Student Outcomes & PBL
c. Information, Media and Technology Skills:

In order for students to be effective in the 21st century they "must be able to exhibit a range of functional and critical thinking skills related to information, media and technology (Wan & Gut, 2011, p. 20). Research has shown that the use of media and technology in early childhood classrooms promoted critical thinking and problem solving skills Mohammad & Mohammad (as cited in Donovan, Green & Mason, 2014, p. 164).

Implications for Education
Main Points of PBL
Dauletova (2014) describes PBL as, "an inquiry-stimulating
practice-based approach to instruction that offers a favorable habitat for deconstruction of the perception of learning as a Subject (the teacher)/
Object (patient, listening students) relationship" (p. 184).

PBL aligns with the 21st Century Student Outcomes. These skills, knowledge and expertise are requisite to succeed in work and life in the 21st century.
Project based learning

PBL over Testing
Implications for Education
The implementation of project-based learning in schools will minimize or eradicate the employment of low level tasks. "The prevalence of low-level tasks contribute to students' lack of understanding of content and process and poor attitudes toward learning and schooling (Blumenfeld et al., 1991, p. 371).

It will afford students opportunities to engage in posing and solving problem and representing knowledge in a variety of ways. "Proponents of project-based learning claim that as students investigate and seek resolutions to problems, they acquire an understanding of key principles and concepts" (Blumenfeld et al., (1991).
How can I motivate children? How can I get children to think about what they are doing? How can I get children to really understand the material, not just pass tests? (Blumenfeld, Soloway, Marx, Krajcik, Guzdial & Palincsar, 1991).
Project based learning
Relevant Research
"Curriculum must go beyond content knowledge to include a strong emphasis on 21st century skills development (Wan & Gut, 2011, p. 58).

"Project-based learning will have a better chance to bring about the desired benefits for students if teachers have a strong motivation to experiment with, and improve it in the classroom (Lam, Wing-yi Cheng & Choy 2010).

"...learning occurs in a social context, learners interact with and internalize modes of knowing and thinking represented and practiced in a community Toulmin (as cited in Blumenfeld et al., 1991).

Teacher implementation of projects can influence motivation and higher level thinking. (Blumenfeld et. al., 1991).

Relevant Research
Problems or Issues
For the last two years our district has been training administrators and teachers to work under a new planning framework. This new framework has been presented by Wiggins & McThighe (2005) in their book
Understanding by Design
. Teachers are currently being trained to shift the traditional planning to a design where knowledge and transfer are the main goal of instruction.

"The prevalence of low-level tasks contributes to students' lack of understanding of content and process and poor attitudes toward learning and schooling ( Blumfeld et al., 1991).

Problems or Issues
Problems or Issues
The route to moving from mere coverage to teaching for understanding and transfer has been full of challenges, realizations and excitement. Next year our school is planning on implementing a Project Based Learning approach. We intend to provide students an inquiry stimulating, practice based approach to instruction that will allow students to construct and transfer knowledge to real life situations.

"The most obvious result of the present study is that project-based learning approach improves academic success, makes learning enjoyable, meaningful and permanent, and develops essential and important skills in students (Gultekin, 2005, p. 253).
Potential Solutions
Provide professional development on the 21st century skills framework to administrators and teachers.

Provide ongoing professional development to support teachers in the implementation process of PBL and other innovative methods. "All professional development efforts should exist as part of an aligned system of teaching and learning standards, curriculum, instruction and assessments" P21 (as cited in Soule & Warrick, 2015).
Wilma Sifonte
Charity Stephens

Potential Solutions
Create learning communities where teachers can support each other in embedding 21st century skills into daily instruction. "Successful professional development initiatives should exist around 21st century skills... including ways teachers can seize opportunities for inte grating 21st century skills, tools and teaching strategies into their classroom practice and helping them identify what activities they can replace/deemphasize" (Soule & Warrick, 2015).

Involve the private sector into supporting teachers efforts to adopt 21st century skills. "The Partnership brings together the business community, education leaders, and policy makers who believe that our education system can -- and must-- equip students with rigorous academic coursework and new kinds of knowledge and 21st century skills that will position them to meet life's challenges (Wan & Gut, 2011, p.62).
Possible Ways to Evaluate Solutions
As students work on problem-based experiences they will acquire a deeper understanding of key principles and concepts (Blumenfeld et al., 1991). It is expected that the understanding of these concepts will be shown in formative assessments that will take place within the context of the learning community.

Possible Ways to Evaluate Solutions
At the end of the first semester of the school year the administration and the curriculum team will meet with teachers applying PBL in their classroom to evaluate and restructure the process of implementation if needed and to establish new goals.

At the end of the school year teachers and administrators will meet to assess implementation, results and to establish new goals for the next school year.
Possible Ways to Evaluate Solutions

Summative assessments will be considered to evaluate the impact of PBL on the participating classes. "On the national examination, three times as many students from the heterogeneous groups in the project school as those in the tracked groups in the textbook school attained the highest possible grade (Boaler, 1999).

A survey will be sent for teachers to evaluate the efficacy, difficulty level of implementation, areas of improvement and overall experience.
Main Points of PBL
2. Personalized Learning

Project-based learning turns learning into a personalized experience.
It uses learners past experiences and knowledge
and builds upon them. "Personalized learning... begins with the
personal [connections], i.e., who is in front of us, what their learning
needs are, and how their capabilities, gifts, and talents can be best
amplified and supported (Treadwell, 2011, p. 12).

a. Core Subjects and 21st Century Themes:

The interdisciplinary themes promote students' understanding of academic content at higher levels (Wan & Gut, 2011).

"The core of PBL is that real world problems capture students interest and provoke serious thinking as the students acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem solving context" (David, 2008).

b. Learning and Innovation Skills:

This process requires critical thinking, communication and collaboration; creativity and innovation. Critical thinking has been defined as "the capacity of active investigative thinking" (Wan & Gut, 2011, p. 52).

"Thinking creatively is taught by having students use a wide range of ideas creation technique"
(Donovan, Green & Mason, 2014, p. 163).

Kindergardeners working on PBL
"...project based-learning approach improves academic success, makes learning enjoyable, meaningful and permanent, and develops essential and important skills in students (Gultekin, 2005, p. 553).

"In measuring basic academic subject proficiency, standardized testing shows that students engaged in PBL outscore their traditionally educated peers" Geier et al. (as cited by Bell, 2010, p. 40).

Boaler (1999) found that PBL students perform better on standardized assessments and project tests than students going through traditional formats of education.

"Research shows that when schools employ a curriculum that balances knowledge and skills, students may cover fewer topics, but they generally learn more than with a content-only curriculum' (Wan & Gut, 2011, p. 58).

(P21, 2009)
Students participating in PBL can build their skills capacity to be ready for
the real world. They will be empowered to think critically, assume leadership, make decisions and be prepared for a global economy.

Educators and administrators will need support systems that strengthen their instructional leadership and management capacity. "Successful professional development initiatives around 21st century skills... including highlighting ways teachers can seize opportunities for integrating 21st century skills, tools, and teaching strategies into their classroom practice and helping them identify what activities they can replace/deemphasize" (Soule & Warrick, 2015, p. 182).
Formative assessments will help the teacher to monitor student learning by providing ongoing feedback to improve their learning; identify their strengths and weaknesses and target areas that need work.
4. Impact on Assessments

Critter (2010)
1. What is Project Based Learning (PBL)?

d. Life and Career Skills:

Academic skills are essential. However, they are not everything students need to be successful. "In our global technological age, young people also need to work with and learn from diverse groups, be flexible in a variety of work and social settings, and be adaptable to changing times (Wan & Gut, 2011, p. 54). Students need to develop leaderships and the responsibilities that come with those roles such as taking responsibility for results, accountability for the decisions made, and resourcefulness.
3. Motivation

Hung, Hwang & Huang (2014) found that project-based learning significantly improves student motivation. "...it was found this innovative approach improved the learning motivation, attitude, problem-solving capability and learning achievements of the students" (p. 376).
Main Points of PBL
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