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Urban Villages VS Slum Settlements
Transcript of Urban Villages VS Slum Settlements
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
City sites in China
Thanks to the quick development of the economy and urbanization, the developing countries are showing out new faces to the world.
However, it is what can be seen by the people living in urban villages and slums and so called the surface of the city . When we stand inside these tall buildings, we may figure out something different -- the backside of the prosperous.
the true face of urban villages and slums
Two type of urbanization
Final goal: Urbanization
is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing and squalor. While slums differ in size and other characteristics from country to country, most lack reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, timely law enforcement and other basic services. Slum residences vary from shanty to poorly built, deteriorated buildings.
(Chengzhongcun) are villages that appear on both the outskirts and the downtown segments of major Chinese cities, including Beijing, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. They are surrounded by the skyscrapers, transportation infrastructures, and other modern urban constructions. Urban villages are a unique phenomenon that formed part of China’s urbanization efforts.
Urban population living in slums
Current living conditions
Source from: UN Habitat
CHILDREN IN SLUMS
--THEY STRUGGLE FOR A BETTER LIFE
THERE ARE TWO TPYE OF SLUMS IN THE WORLD--ONE IS WITH HOPE, WHILE ANOTHER IS FULL OF DESPERATION
Same Essence: they are all formed by the city new migrants and poor people through the process of urbanization.
Lack of a Unified Planning and Form the Housing Mode out of Planning : insufficient in housing security due to an excessively rapid development of urbanization.
Small Living Areas and Poor Living Conditions: a gradually higher housing price and living cost with the economy development.
Have the Same Spatial and Social Structure: discordant " islet"; at the bottom of the society -- a concept of " Slum-like".
Source from: UN Habitat, 2013
Source from: Yunyu Lan, 2007
Be Left out the Welfare System: without bring into city's management system of policy and economy; and outside the door of welfare distribution system.
All Mean the Poverty Transference: actually still live in poverty for a low-skill and literacy background; at the same time, the necessity to get away from the primary poverty situation.
The Hazards in front: both to the society - hinder the process of urbanization; and to themselves-suffer the wicked conditions.
It is a suicide!
Urban Villages: Rent from the property owner-legal
Slums: Build on the common land - illegal
A Different Land System: China- Public Ownership; India- Private Ownership.
Urban Villages: People have the land in their hometown, and they may go back to hometown after several years
Slums: People there often lost their land.
China Has the Household Registration System.
Urban Villages: Have a relatively convenient infrastructure
Slums: Power cut or cut off the water supply frequently
A Different Paying Cost: China- the external migrants should pay the same rate of that of the local residents; India- the paying various among the slums.
Urban Villages: Often refer to a geographical concept
Slums: Refer to a political concept
Colonialism and the racial segregation: India has The Caste System and an obviously class disparity
Urban Villages: Brick-concrete structure
Slums: Build by paperboard and plastic cloth
A Different Housing Quality: China- has the communities, the village committee, and under the supervision of the housing department; India- has no real estate
The Influence to the Urbanization: China- the Chinese village residents are seeking jobs in the city, which could help to promote the economic development, while the people who cannot work are always staying in the rural area; India- people live in slums do not promote the economic development for the high unemployment rate
Vulnerability to natural and unnatural hazards
Unemployment and informal economy
An Urgent Issue
Thank you !
something already done
Removal- Relocation- Upgrading
Both the residents and the owners may not willing to accept the upgrading
People has a poor sprite life in the urban villages or slums
If the government cannot make a unified plan, the urban villages and slums would appear again
Perfect the Social Security System
Zhuhai, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shenzhen
Upgrading the conditions of the slums
A., Smart, and W., Tan, (2005), Irregular Trajectories: Illegal Building in Mainland China and Hong Kong, In L.J.C., Ma, and F., Wu (eds), Restructuring the Chinese Cities: Changing Society, Economy and Space, Routledge, London: 80-97.
Ghosh, S., Shah D., (2004), Nutritional problems in urban slum children, Indian Pediatr 41(7): 682–96.
Go, Vivian F., et al, (2003), When HIV-prevention messages and gender norms clash: the impact of domestic violence on women's HIV risk in slums of Chennai, India, AIDS and Behavior 7 (3): 263–272.
Kabiru, C. W., et al, (2012), Making It: understanding adolescent resilience in two informal settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya，Child & Youth Services 33 (1): 12–32.
Kenya, (2007), What are the Slums and Why do They Exist, UN Habitat.
LI, Yu, and Haipeng, Cai, (2013), Challenges for Housing Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing, Habitat International, 40: 268-277.
Li, Zhang, (2011), The Political Economy of Informal Settlements in Post-Socialist China: The Case of Chengzhongcun(s), Geoforum, 42 (4): 473-383.
Pu, Hao, Richard, Sliuzas, and Stan, Geertman, (2011) The Development and Redevelopment of Urban Villages in Shenzhen, Habitat International, 35 (2): 214-224.
Walther, James, (1965), Cause or Effect of Slums? Challenge 13 (14): 24–25.
Some governments eventually accept the presence of informal settlements, and initiate programs to regularize and upgrade them, as in the Indian case.
Some governments, as in the Chinese case, show zero-tolerance of the growth of informal settlements and schedule to demolish them in the name of disciplining and beautifying urban spaces (Chan et al., 2003 and Wang et al., 2009).
Dharavi, the largest slum in Asia, is the home to 100 million people. It closes to the financial center of Mumbai. It cannot regard as a dwelling house, because it is dark, and people only have 2-3 square meters living area, with a toilet shared by 1,400 people.
"Close under the Abbey of Westminster there lie concealed labyrinths of lanes and potty and alleys and slums, nests of ignorance, vice, depravity, and crime, as well as of squalor, wretchedness, and disease; whose atmosphere is typhus, whose ventilation is cholera; in which swarms of huge and almost countless population, nominally at least, Catholic; haunts of filth, which no sewage committee can reach - dark corners, which no lighting board can brighten."
In 1850 the Catholic Cardinal Wiseman described the area known as Devil's Acre in Westminster, London