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Crime, Poverty, and Society in England
Transcript of Crime, Poverty, and Society in England
The boroughs that currently come out worst in this analysis typically occupied similar positions ten or even twenty years ago, indicating the persistence of labour market under-performance." ("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") “Most offenders were young males, but most offences were petty thefts. The most common offences committed by women were linked to prostitution and were, essentially, 'victimless' crimes - soliciting, drunkenness, drunk and disorderly, vagrancy.” (Emsley) “By the beginning of Victoria's reign the Bloody Code of the eighteenth century had all but disappeared. Capital punishment only remained for murderers and traitors. Transportation to Australia had reached its peak in the early 1830s; to all intents and purposes it ended in the early 1850s, not least because of the increasing hostility of colonists in Australia who objected to their land being used as a dumping ground.” (Emsley) "A symptom of Tower Hamlets’ [poverty] situation is the poor nutrition of schoolkids: the borough has 42 fast food outlets per school, the highest in the country (compared with 25 for the UK as a whole), and a recent report suggested that some children are eating up to 16 takeaways each week." ("Londonist") “Most offenders brought before the courts were male. This suited Victorian perceptions of the separate spheres, and ensured that women brought before the courts, especially for violent offences, tended to be treated more harshly than men. Not only had they transgressed the law, they had also transgressed the perceptions of womanhood. “ (Emsley) “Many people could not afford the rents that were being charged and so they rented out space in their room to one or two lodgers who paid between twopence and fourpence a day.
Great wealth and extreme poverty lived side by side because the tenements, slums, rookeries were only a stones throw from the large elegant houses of the rich.” (Daniels) “Children were expected to help towards the family budget. They often worked long hours in dangerous jobs and in difficult situations for a very little wage. For example, there were the climbing boys employed by the chimney sweeps; the little children who could scramble under machinery to retrieve cotton bobbins; boys and girls working down the coal mines, crawling through tunnels too narrow and low to take an adult. Some children worked as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, and they sold matches, flowers and other cheap goods.” (Daniels) The Victorian Era “[M]any nineteenth-century comments on the causes of crimes have parallels in the present day. The people of the nineteenth century could see that poverty, the immediate pressure of want, was not, as it might at first sight have seemed, the only explanation or the most important explanation for crime, and that many stole who were not driven to it by the immediate pressure of necessity.” (Tobias 45) “[If] we are to look for a parallel in the field of crime with the England of the first 60 years of the nineteenth century, it is not to the England of the twentieth century that we should look, but to those countries that are today undergoing the experience of industrialisation and urbanisation.”(Tobias 49) "The man’s face was thin and very pale; his hair and beard were grizzly, and his eyes were bloodshot. The old woman’s face was wrinkled, her two remaining teeth protruded over her under lip, and her eyes were bright and piercing. Oliver was afraid to look at either her or the man, – they seemed so like the rats he had seen outside." (Dickens 47) "Child poverty is also more acute in London, with far more children in the lowest 10% of the income distribution and the highest rate of severe child poverty in the UK." ("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") "I never knew how bad she was, till the fever came upon her, and then her bones were starting through the skin. There was neither fire nor candle; she died in the dark – in the dark. She couldn’t even see her children’s faces, though we heard her gasping out their names. I begged for her in the streets, and they sent me to prison. When I came back, she was dying; and all the blood in my heart has dried up, for they starved her to death. I swear it before the God that saw it,– they starved her!" (Dickens 48) "The sun was rising in all his splendid beauty, but the light only seemed to show the boy his own lonesomeness and desolation as he sat with bleeding feet and covered with dust upon a cold door-step." (Dickens 61) "Families living in poverty have only £10 per person per day to buy everything they need . In contrast, the average household income in London is £44 per person per day - over 20% higher than the national average."
("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") "The UK has about 30,000 criminals who are members of organised crime gangs, and who cost the country up to £40bn a year, a report says." (BBC News) Modern London Sources Tobias, J. Crime and Industrial Society in the 19th century. 1st ed. London: B. T. Batsford LTD, 1967. Print. Chesney, Kellow. The Anti-Society: An Account of the Victorian Underworld. Boston: Gambit Incorporated, 1970. Print. Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1993. Print Emsley, Clive. "Crime and the Victorians." BBC. BBC, 17 02 2011. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/crime_01.shtml>. Daniels, Barbara. "Poverty and Families in the Victorian Era." Hidden Lives Revealed. N.p., 2003. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.hiddenlives.org.uk/articles/poverty.html> Rees, Simon. "Daughters of the Twilight City." Historical Eye. N.p., 2003. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.historicaleye.com/Lost4.html>. United Kingdom. London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06. London: Corporation of London, 2005. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/2CAE66FB-2DD5-41A5-B916-8FFC37276059/0/BC_RS_lpuk_0511_FR.pdf>. "Criminal gangs 'costing UK £40bn'." BBC News. BBC, 13 06 2009. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8147890.stm> "Prostitution." Against Violence & Abuse. AVA, 2010. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.avaproject.org.uk/our-resources/statistics/prostitution.aspx> "Child Poverty Figures Make Grim Reading For London Boroughs." Londonist. Londonist, 23 02 2011. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://londonist.com/2011/02/child-poverty-figures-make-grim-reading-for-london-boroughs.php>. "Inequality." London's Poverty Profile. Trust for London, 2010. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.londonspovertyprofile.org.uk/indicators/topics/inequality/>. "More than half of women in prostitution have been raped and or seriously assaulted and at least 75% have been physically assaulted at the hands of the pimps and punters. 74% of women in prostitution identify poverty, the need to pay household expenses and support their children, as primary motivators for being drawn into prostitution." ("Against Violence and Abuse") "Up to 75% of women involved in prostitution began when they were under 18 years of age and most teenage prostitutes are involved in street prostitution, which is estimated to be ten times more dangerous than working from houses or flats." ("Against Violence and Abuse") "One of the defining features of London is that low incomes sit alongside very high incomes. While boroughs in Outer London tend to have either rich or poor wards, Inner London boroughs tend to have both rich and poor wards. For example, Haringey, in Inner London, is London's most divided borough. Its 19 wards contain four of the richest and five of the poorest wards in London." ("London's Poverty Profile") "Inner London is more divided than any other region in England. 19% of the population of Inner London are in the top tenth for income nationwide, measured after housing costs. 16% are in the bottom tenth of income. Though less markedly divided than Inner London, Outer London is also more divided than other English regions. 16% of its population are in the nationwide top tenth, and 14% are in the bottom tenth." ("London's Poverty Profile") "Despite London’s economic success over the last 15 years, there are still areas of significant weakness. In particular, London’s unemployment rate as measured by the Labour Force Survey has risen to 6.7%, significantly above the UK average of 4.7% and the highest of any Government Office Region other than the North East. Moreover, the employment rate – the proportion of the working age population that is in work – has remained on a downward trend over the last year." ("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") "London has been a key source of growth in the UK economy over the past decade. In this respect, London’s recent economic performance is in sharp contrast to the experience of much of the post-war period. For nearly 40 years London lost both people and jobs, much of it due to planned decentralisation. Even after the abandonment of such planning in 1977, the trend remained predominantly downward until 1993. The turnaround since then has been remarkable, and has transformed London’s place in
the UK economy." ("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") "Surprising as it seems today, London was until relatively recently a major industrial city. Thirty years ago, close to one in four workers in London were employed in manufacturing industry. One seventh of UK manufacturing production was also located in London, and manufactured products comprised London’s main source of export earnings. Since then, manufacturing output and employment have fallen greatly, as industry has contracted and decentralised." ("London's Place in the UK Economy, 2005-06") Crime, Poverty, and Society in Modern v. Victorian London