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by

Noorbano Muraj

on 11 May 2010

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Spreadsheets Purpose and Use rows and column columns rows used to organise the data width and height can be altered rows and columns can be hidden Cells eg. A4 every cell can be uniquely identified cells can be formatted
- background colour
- font
- font size
- validation
- allignment
-conditional formatting cells can be protected with a password
ensures daa canot be altered Range group of cells a range is usually given
top left to bottom right
and seperated with a colon
for example, A4:B6
or C7:G12 Ranges are often used in formulae and
functions. They make it easier to understand
the spreadsheet and how it is working
and allow the same formatting to be applied
at the same time Ranges are used when the cells within it
contain similar data Worksheets A large grid of cells on a single sheet.
For example, worksheets can be used to hold
data on a single area of the business; it can hold
the sales data, the expenditure or the stock. T
hese worksheets can also be given names. A collection of more than one worksheet in the same spreadsheet. Data can be divided into up into different categories and can be organised.
For example, separate worksheets could contain financial figures for different areas of a business but together they comprise a workbook and contain all the figures of a business.
An advantage of using workbooks is that different access rights can be given to different worksheets. Workbooks are easy to back up, copy and send to other people.
FORMULAS Is a way a calculation is represented in a spreadsheet. Formulae use numbers, addresses of cells (A12 or names) and mathematical operators (+ / * -) e.g., A12+(A12*VAT_RATE) RULES set of procedures that must be followed. For example, if a calculation requires two values then it must have these two values, validation rules can be applied to make sure that the value is given. FUNCTIONS These are used to represent a formula that is too complex or too long to expect a user to enter. Spreadsheet uses reserved words that have already been built into the spreadsheet. Examples include:
-SUM: adds a range of cells and gives the total
-MAX: gives the maximum value from a list
-LOOKUP: gives a value from an array based on a given value.
Spreadsheet Modelling: Modelling of objects (buildings) computers allow you to create virtual presentations of the item; can model large items such as buildings- you can look at the effect on them from external influences like earthquakes or fires How can you see it?
The different layers – external view, basic frame, and model can be rotated so you can see it from different angles and the different aspects can be shown. Its easy to zoom in and out for extra detail for a particular part, for example a vehicle, you can zoom into it to see the bolts and the nuts.

An important characteristic of software used to model objects is that you can ask the model questions and see its reaction and its outcome, for example adding items or taking it away, moving an item and being able to see its different design. This is easy as your just changing things from a click of a button rather than having to build the object several times.

Spreadsheet Modelling: Mathematical Modelling Spreadsheets- layout is always in rows and columns, logical and easy-to-follow format. The use of rows and columns leads to the use of sequencing and replication. Replication is the copying of a cell either horizontally or vertically, formulae can also be copied. Workbooks: Spreadsheets have many features to help with modelling, based on functions and formulae, allows numbers to be input into the spreadsheet and for any changes to be automatically recalculated. Can try out different scenarios using a single model. Spreadsheets use variables and constants. Variables are changeable values that is entered into a cell that is then used in a formula. The variable can be changed by the user when required and the change will lead to a recalculation of figures based on that variable, for example you would like to know 10% discount on clothes items and then want to know 25% by changing the variable the results will change as well.
Constants are values which are used in formulas but cannot be changed by the user. For example fixed costs for a business will always remain the same so it is not changeable
Why is computer modelling used?
-it is less risky (safer and cheaper) to test a model of a design (financial or an object) than to create it in reality and test it. For example, building large objects can take time and money also if a test goes wrong it could cost human life.
-Only one model needs to be created in a computer. Model can be altered or changed. If the real model had to be changed or altered, a new one would have to be created each time to view its different alternations. This would cost time and money.
-Computer model can be backed up and shared. As it is stored electronically, it can be backed up on a disk, and can be emailed or sent to others working on the model.
-If a disaster occurs, the computer model can be accelerated or slowed down to see the effects that could not be viewed in reality.
WHYYYY????? HOW THEY ARE USED...? VARIABLESSS.. A variable is an identifier associated with a particular cell. Within the cell, there will be a value - can be a cell reference (A4) or the cell could have a cell name (VAT_RATE).
When the variable is used in a spreadsheet, it is the value contianed within the variable that is used. RELATIVE Referncing && Absolute REFERENCINGG :) When the cell referenced in a spreadsheet formula changes when the formula is copied to other cells This means that when a formula or function is copied the cell refernce within the formula or function will move Relative addressing also works to ensure the correct cellls are refernced when cells are copied to new rows

Relative referencing is used when you want the cell reference to change when you copy the cell. when a referenced cell in a spreadsheet formula needs to remian exactly the same when the formula is copied to other cells. For example,,,, a cell might contain a constant value such as the VAT rate, so this cell will always be reffered to in calculations that use it, even if the cell containing the calculation is copied. The main advantage of absolute referncing is that if you want to change the cost of something, you only have to change the value in one cell wich will qutomatically run through the rest of the cells involved. This is achieved by putting the dollar sign (\$) before the column and row parts of the cell reference. E.g. =\$A\$1+A2 Used when a value is used in the same formula or function many times HOW a DaTa moDeL may BE used for ANSWERING "What if.." questions.. "what if.." questions is an attempt to find out what is going to happen in the future. it requires a value to be changed so other values are re-calculated.
For Example..
- HOW much do i need toincrease the price of a certain brand of sportswear by for my profit to increase by 5%

Models contain:
-calculations,
-formulae,
-functions
-rules.
-cell references
-named cells.

they can be re-calculated automatically and present data in a variety of formats: textually, nemerically and graphically.

all these features assit in answering "what if.." questions
A benefit of using the models can be changed many times and many different values and figures can be looked at. the only cost involved would be time. once the model has been created it will answer as many "what if.." questions as you want it to. The cost and time involved in using a model are both likely to be less than creating physical models. To answer "What if.." questions using physical models will require a new model to be created for each question.

If wanting to see end results using models, it would be easier doing this vitually as models can be tested in different scenarios without being destroyed.

If there is a error in the model, it is simpler and faster to alter it on a computer than in a physical model. For example re-writing a rule or function, which can be done quickly
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING A SPREADSHEET TO CREATE AND RUN SIMULATIONS aDvANtAgEs = "what if.." questions can be asked without rebuilding models from scratch each time a test is run
= automatic re-calculation
= Graphs can be produced
= Model can be saved and backed up
= quicker and cheaper to build a virtual model
= Computer models can be speeded up or slowed down to see the effects
= safer to run a model under extreme conditions. DiSaDvAnTAgeS = the model may not be an actual accurate representation of the real world
= if model relates to human action may not be accurate
= many variables need to be considered and is easy to miss things out
= producing an effective model may br time consuming and running the model may need expensive hardware and software
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