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The 8 Features of Civilization
Transcript of The 8 Features of Civilization
By Tara Treagus
Art and Architecture
Cities are the base of a civilization. Cities can provide shelter, communal places for the city residents, and the opportunity to expand jobs and skills. Successful cities need some key things. Settlements are important, because, in civilizations, they create a place for everyone to live. Especially in early times of cities, living in a river valley really helped with a source of water, irrigation for crops, and a way of transportation. Surplus (extra food) are important for cities because then, people don't always have to be focused on getting food, and some people can have other jobs, and help progress the city. Few of the other factors of civilization could function without cities.
This is a sketch of the Athens, a city in ancient Greece
This is Uruk, an ancient Mesopotamian city. The photo above show public places, as well as residential areas.
This is a map of ancient Pompeii. Pompeii was a city in the Roman Empire.
Government is what keeps a civilization in order. Rules and laws keep everyone safe, responsible and organized. Government sees over business and trade. They also expand the civilization, and help improve it. A good government can really be the turning point, whether the civilization is going to be successful or not. If civilizations did not have government, the civilization would most probably not be prosperous, because government can play a huge, and important role, in any citizen's life. Government leaders would also, very often, double as religious leaders. I think that governments, in civilizations are very important.
Those are the 8 Features of Civilization
This picture show a Roman meeting place called the forum, where many government related events would take place, such as elections, and criminal trials
This is in ancient Egypt, where instead of a full government, they had one ultimate leader, their Pharaoh
This is a sketch of ancient China's government office, it is called Gu Xianya, in Chinese
Job specialization is very important in the progress of a civilization. in order to have job specialization, the civilization needs to develop surplus, so that everyone doesn't always have to be on the hunt for food. Some people still have to farm, but if there is stored food, that gives people opportunities to do other things. In ancient times, some jobs included craftsmen, teachers, writers, artists, architects and stone cutters. Some of those jobs are similar to jobs we have today. Once various people are focused on various jobs, it helps the civilization develop in various ways.
This is an ancient Egyptian writing on a scribe. He is probably writing down trade or business information.
This shows a Mayan Pyramid, made out of stone. A job like a stone cutter would be vital to make something like this.
This shows a man, in Athens, ancient Greece, teaching some younger boys. A teacher is not entirely vital for a civilization, but is very important for keeping the civilization alive, and creating educated generations
Once people have specialized jobs, skill levels begin to vary. Some people become smarter than others, stronger than others, or more official than others. Different jobs and abilities earn different amounts of respect. For example, a slave would earn no respect, as he doesn't have a very established job, while a king, or a warrior would earn much respect, as their jobs are noble, and important. Also, as jobs vary, so do payments. A person who doesn't have a great job wouldn't get payed very much, while a person with a appreciable job would get payed greatly. With the two factors of respect, and payment, different social classes are established. Social classes are important in civilizations, but they can also cause dispute, because once you are established in one social class, it is very hard to change that.
This is an image of the Egyptian social classes. The shape of the pyramid represents the number of people employed in each job, in comparison.
This is in ancient Rome, in the Colosseum. Rome proves that it is not easy being on the bottom side of the social class, as in this case, they were being killed by wild animals. I don't agree with that extreme way of social classes, but the ancient Romans did some crazy things.
This is web shows social classes in Mesopotamia, it is quite similar to the chart about Egypt. This starts at King, and finishes at slaves. I like how king and slaves are linked, as they are quite connected. Slaves will usually work for kings as their main employer.
Public works are when the government creates things for the citizens, using taxes. In our current cities, public works are things like public school, pluming, roads and community centers. In ancient times, public works were things like roads, protective walls, aqueducts, art, monuments, baths (like communal hot tubs) and temples. Many of the public works from ancient times to current times are actually not too different. Great leaders would often use tax payer's money to build monuments for themselves, such as statues, temples and pyramids. I feel that public works are very important to a civilization, because they contribute things to the society, that government often couldn't pay for themselves. One of the most important, and most common of public works in ancient times were aqueducts. Aqueducts enabled people to survive in the desert. As you can see, public works link in with many other factors of civilization. Many large civilizations were based in areas without a large water source, and aqueducts enabled them to bring in water, where ever their civilization was.
This picture shows an ancient Roman aqueduct. Many Roman cities were located in desert, and aqueducts enabled them to survive.
This is the Great Wall of China. It was made in the ancient Chinese civilization, as a public work.
This is an ancient Indian statue of their religious leader, Buddha. This statue was made as a public work.
Cities can relate to government, as government will always be based in a city, and a lot of the work that government does, is for a city.
Cities are tied in with job specialization, as successful cities create the opportunity for job specialization, and once people have specialized jobs, that helps the city progress.
Public works are very closely linked with cities because most public works will be for the benefit of the city, and the government needs city residents to pay for the public works.
Government is very related to cities, as government is based on keeping the cities in order. Also, cities are where governments are based.
Government and religion quite related. The two would often share a leader, and but governments would also often force a religion upon their people.
Public works and government are very linked, as government creates, organizes, and maintains public works, as well as collects the taxes that pays for them.
Job specialization goes hand in hand with social classes, as what job you have determines what social class you will be in.
Job specialization can also often link with art and architecture, and writing, as these are specialized jobs.
Social classes are very linked to job specialization as the job you have, decides your social class. I find that Social classes and job specialization go hand in hand, as they each "feed" off each other.
Public works are linked to government, because the government are the ones building and organizing the projects.
It is connected to religion, because many public works were based on religion: things like temples to worship their gods
Public works are linked to job specialization, because many kinds of public works require people with various skills and professions
Finally, it is connected to art and architecture, the government probably couldn't make any public works without architects, as most public works are primarily based on luxurious looks, and architects are usually needed for that.
Religion in ancient times was a little different to religion we have today. Every religion was polytheistic (had many gods). They believed that there was a spirit/god for everything in nature, like a tree god, or a water god. Many civilizations worshiped different religions, in different time periods. There would be many ceremonies and rituals each day, as the constant goal was to keep the gods happy. The people believed that if they worshiped the gods daily, kept them pleased, and did not anger them, they would be kind to the people and bring the land rain and sun for farming. In their beliefs, if the gods were not kept happy, the weather for farmers would be bad, and people would suffer. Every religion has symbols, that pay respect to their gods. Most ancient civilizations would be very religion orientated, and would have rituals as part of their daily routines.
Religion is very linked with art and architecture, as most pieces of art would be based on religion.
Government is quite connected with religion, as the government would often control the civilization's religion. Also, government and religion would commonly share a leader.
Public works are associated with religion as religion was the base of very many public works. Temple, shrines, and carving are all things that wold often be public works, and based on religion.
This shows a religious gathering, in ancient Inca.
This shows a statue of Confucius, ancient China's religious leader.
This shows an ancient Buddhist symbol called the Wheel of Life. Ancient India worshiped Buddhism for a time period.
Job specialization is connected to cities, as for a successful city, there must be people working in various jobs
Social classes are connected with cities, it may not seem obvious, but within cities, people "feed" off each other, and some people work for other people. This system is crucial for the success of a city.
Art and architecture is not the very most important factor, for a civilization, but it provides beauty, and pride for the civilization. Art allows people to express themselves, their beliefs, and their values, in many ways, and that is very important. Architecture also allows people to express themselves, but it is also very important for the growth and development of a civilization. Architects would help design buildings and monuments, for the civilization. A large reason that art and architecture was so important in civilizations, was because the leaders of civilizations like to show off to each other, and impress visitors. They thought that having great art and architecture would portray pride and beauty within their civilization. Many styles of art and architecture seem similar to other civilizations. That is because civilizations would steal ideas and designs from each other, leaving their designs very similar.
This is a beautiful piece of art, from ancient Inca
Art and architecture is very related to religion, because art and architecture is most commonly inspired by religion.
Architecture is connected to cities as it contributes to the growth and development of the the city, as it helps build building and monuments.
Art and Architecture is linked to public works, as art and architecture contributes to the building and design of the structure.
This photo show ancient Greek ruins, which must have been made by amazing architects.
This shows a detailed piece of art, inspired by the Aztec calendar. Most art in ancient times was based on a symbol or meaning that had great meaning to their civilization.
Writing was very important for ancient civilizations. Once the city was established, and they were starting to trade more and more, records needed to be kept. These records contained accounts on trade, and food storage. If trading became complicated, a record was always handy. One common term for a writer was a scribe. Scribes would be involved in business, but would also occasionally do things like teach. Writing was also used to write down religious beliefs and stories. Writers would also keep track of laws and social order. To have a successful civilization, there needs to be rules and regulations, to keep everyone safe, and happy. In the ancient times, writing was definitely needed for more than just writing stories for the fun of it!
This shows Egyptian hieroglyphs, which were used as the Egyptian language. Did you know that not many people knew hieroglyphs, so scribes were scarce.
This photo shows a scribe in ancient Mayan, writing.
Writing is connected to government, as a lot of the things that the scribes would write were government related records.
Writing is linked to religion, as they would often write religious beliefs and stories.
Writing is related to job specialization, as it is a specialized job, that is very important to a civilization.
Finally, writing is connected to art and architecture, as writing would often be produced as art: carved or painted.
This shows an ancient Roman conference, where a scribe was present, taking records.