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Hazard Communication and The Globally Harmonized System
Transcript of Hazard Communication and The Globally Harmonized System
OSHA 1910.1200 What are hazardous chemicals?
How do hazardous chemicals affect the body?
What types of hazards might a chemical have?
How do I protect myself from hazardous chemicals?
How will GHS affect product labels and material safety data sheets?
How do hazardous chemicals affect the body? How the chemical enters the body
The physical form of the chemical
The amount of chemical that actually enters the body - the dose
How toxic (poisonous) the chemical is What types of hazards might a chemical have? Chemicals will either have physical and/or health hazards.
Combustible liquid - flashpoint above 100F.
Flammable - flashpoint below 100F.
Pyrophoric - spontaneously ignite in air
Water Reactive -
Carcinogen - cancer causing
Corrosive - irreversible effects to living tissue
Irritant - reversible effect on living tissue
Sensitizer - develop an allergic reaction with repeated exposure What is hazard communication? Hazard communication or "hazcom is a program where we tell you about the hazardous chemicals used in the workplace.
We will also train you on how to protect yourself from the effects of these hazardous chemicals.
Hazcom training is required by OHSA. A hazardous chemical is any chemical that can do harm to your body.
Most industrial chemicals can harm you at some level.
It depends how much gets into your body. What is a "hazardous chemical"? It depends on several factors: 5
Ingestion – swallowing the chemical
Inhalation – breathing in the chemical
Absorption – the chemical soaks through the skin There Are Three Main Routes of Entry: How Chemicals Enter the Body 6 Chemicals in the air are breathed in through the mouth or nose.
Gases & vapors are absorbed through the lungs directly into the bloodstream.
The size of dust particles or mist droplets can affect where the chemical settles in the respiratory tract. Inhalation (Breathing) These chemicals can then cause various health effects which include but are not limited to irritation, chemical burns, allergic contact dermatitis or rashes.
Some examples of chemicals which are potential irritants include: ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and sodium hydroxide. 7 Some chemicals can pass through the skin into the body and may represent a significant health risk. Skin Absorption 8 Chemicals that are swallowed are absorbed in the digestive tract.
Chemicals can rub off dirty hands and contaminate food, drinks or tobacco products.
Chemicals in the air or dust can settle on food or drink and be swallowed. If the chemical or dust is hazardous, it can cause health problems Ingestion (Swallowing) All chemicals exists in one of three forms:
Liquid The Three Forms of Chemicals 10 Some chemicals are solids in the form of powders or dust.
Dust can be released into the air by cutting, drilling, grinding or sanding.
Dust can also be stirred up by dry sweeping and inhaled. Hazardous Chemicals - Dusts 12 Fumes are extremely small droplets of metal formed when the metal has been vaporized by high temperatures (usually welding)
Some solids are fibers which can be similar to dusts but they have an elongated shape (like asbestos or fiberglass) Solids – Fumes and Fibers 13 Liquid chemicals in direct contact with the skin can cause skin problems.
Some liquids can be absorbed into the body through the skin.
Liquids can be sprayed and form mists or evaporate and form vapors which can be inhaled. Hazardous Chemicals - Liquids 14 Mists can also be inhaled.
Mists can settle on the skin and be absorbed into the body.
Airborne mists can also settle out and contaminate food or drink. Liquids (Mists) 15 Gases are chemicals that are in the gas phase at room temperature.
Vapors evaporate from substances that are liquids or solids at room temperature and may cause damage to various target organs including the lungs when entering the body through inhalation. Gases and Vapors How do you know whether you are being exposed to respiratory hazards at work? Your body has several built-in mechanisms which can act as warning signals when hazards are present:
a runny nose These physical responses, or signals, will sometimes tell you there is a potential hazard present. In some cases these also will help you to remove a hazardous agent from your respiratory system. However, sometimes these signals will not warn you about hazards. For example, some chemicals have no odour so you cannot smell them. There are other chemicals that you can only smell when the concentration is well above so-called “safe levels” and already harming your health, and there are certain chemicals that you cannot smell after being around them for a while — your nose gets “accustomed” or used to them. Therefore, smell is not always a reliable warning signal. 16 Dose - The effects of any toxic chemical depends on the amount of a chemical that actually enters the body.
Acute Toxicity - the measure of how toxic a chemical is in a single dose over a short period of time.
Chronic Toxicity – the measure of the toxicity of exposure to a chemical over a long period of time. Toxicity:
how poisonous are chemicals? 17 Some chemicals will only make you sick if you get an ‘acute” or high dose all at once. Example – ammonia - can cause immediate burning of the eyes, nose, throat and/or respiratory system and could even result in death.
Some chemicals are mainly known for their chronic or long-term effects. Example – asbestos - Asbestosis (a chronic lung disease in which there is scar-like tissue formed in the lungs.)
Most chemicals have both acute and chronic effects. Example – carbon monoxide.
Acute - at high levels may cause unconsciousness and eventually death.
Chronic - problems can range from amnesia, headaches and memory loss to personality and behavioral changes, loss of muscle and bladder control and impairment of co-ordination and vision. Chronic Toxicity and Acute Toxicity 18 Many chemicals have exposure limits, or allowable amounts of a chemical in the air.
These limits are often called “Permissible Exposure Limits” (OSHA) or “Threshold Limit Values” (ACGIH).
They are based on 8-hour average exposure or ceiling or peak levels.
Levels must be kept below these limits for safety. Chemical Exposure Limits 28 The vapor of a flammable liquid ignites and causes fire or explosion – not the liquid itself.
The flammability of a liquid depends on its physical properties:
Limits of Flammability
Vapor Density Properties of Flammable Liquids 29 Vapor pressure is a measure of how fast a liquid evaporates.
The higher the vapor pressure the more rapidly the liquid will evaporate.
Vapor pressure goes up and down with the temperature of the liquid. Flammable Liquids –Vapor Pressure 30
The flash point is the lowest temperature that a flammable liquid can generate enough vapor to form a mixture with air that will ignite. Flammable Liquids - Flashpoint 31
The limits of flammability is the range that a mixture of air and vapor is flammable.
Mixtures can be too lean (not enough vapor) or too rich (too much vapor) to ignite and burn. Limits of Flammability 32 LFL = Lower flammable limit UFL = Upper flammable limit Too Lean Boom! Methane 15.0%
LFL Too Rich Methane
100% Flammable Limits Example However, these vapors can quickly go above the LFL in small room or confined space like a tank. Vapors from flammable liquids can be found in the workplace, but are often too diluted to catch fire or explode. In most work situations, the “lower flammable limit” (LFL) is the main concern. 33 Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) Flammable Liquids 34 “Vapor density” is a measure of how heavy a vapor is compared to air.
Vapors with a density greater than air can flow like a liquid collect near the floor.
This may create a fire or explosion hazard if the vapor flows to an ignition source. Vapor Density Flammable Liquids - 23
Acids and bases (caustics) are common corrosive chemicals.
Corrosive chemicals are capable of damaging eyes, skin and the respiratory system. Corrosive Chemicals 24
Corrosives can cause visible skin burns or damage.
The extent of skin damage depends on how long the corrosive is on the skin and how concentrated the corrosive is. Corrosives exposed to the skin may cause redness, swelling, rash, or blisters.
If corrosives do come into contact no matter how minimal the exposure is, immediately flush the exposed area with running cool water for 15-20 minutes. Also review the MSDS for first aid measures. Corrosive Chemicals - Skin 25
Inhalation of corrosive mists or vapors can cause severe bronchial irritation or burns.
Corrosives are especially damaging to the eyes and if not treated immediately after exposure blindness may occurr. Corrosive Chemicals -
Inhalation and Eyes Batteries contain sulfuric acid 26 Examples of Corrosive Chemicals 27 Engineering is always the first solution!!
How can we eliminate the handling of corrosive chemicals or reduce the exposure time? If engineering and administrative controls are not feasible then provide the appropriate PPE.
Protective gloves & clothing
Water (for splashes on the skin) Protection from Corrosives Sulfuric Acid
Chlorine 22 Sensitizers
Sensitizers can “switch on” a reaction in an individual worker.
The reaction to a sensitizer depends upon the individual worker and several factors including eating habits, physical condition, obesity, medical conditions, drinking, smoking, and pregnancy.
Once a worker becomes sensitized to a compound, smaller and smaller exposures can cause a reaction, and the reactions can become more severe and may cause an allergic rash or difficulty breathing or other reactions.
Examples of sensitizers include epoxy resins, nickel salts, isocyanates and formaldehyde. Other Groups of Toxic Chemicals So what is GHS and how will it affect the current Hazard Communication Standard?
GHS is a common and coherent approach to defining and classifying hazards for chemicals, as well as communicating such information on labels and safety data sheets.
GHS is an international recommendation from the United Nations – initiated 1992; agreed upon 2002; published 2003. Currently many different countries have different systems for classification and labeling of chemical products. In addition, several different systems can exist even within the same country. This situation has been expensive for governments to regulate and enforce, costly for companies who have to comply with many different systems, and confusing for workers who need to understand the hazards of a chemical in order to work safely.
GHS is expected to minimize differences that impact protection of human health and the environment
Improve consistency in hazard communication
Reduce chemical-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities Why is the GHS needed? What will GHS Include? Classification Criteria:
Safety Data Sheets
Labels Standardized Hazard Communication Elements Included in GHS: Classification - determination of nature and severity of hazard
Pictogram(s) - Physical , Health, and Environmental Hazards
Signal Word - "Danger" and "Warning" - Used to emphasize hazard
Hazard Statement(s) - Standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures
Precautionary Statement(s) - indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user, other people, and the environment Classification of Physical, Health, and Environmental Hazards Physical
Flammable - gases , liquids, solids
Oxidizing - liquid, solid, gas
Pyrophoric - liquids, solids
Corrosive to Metals
Gases Under Pressure
Water-Activated Flammable Gas Health
Skin Corrosion / Irritation
Serious Eye Damage / Eye Irritation
Respiratory or Skin Sensitization
Germ Cell Mutagenicity
Target Organ Systemic Toxicity Environmental
Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment
Hazardous to the Ozone Layer OSHA Will Also Include: Simple Asphxiant - The label will have: Warning. May displace oxygen and cause rapid suffocation.
Pyrophoric Gas - The label will have: Danger. Catches fire spontaneously if exposed to air.
Combustible Dust - The label will have: Warning. May form combustible dust concentrations in air. OSHA Also Includes: Hazard Not Otherwise Classified (HNOC)
This exists to catch workplace hazards that have not yet been defined in the regulations. Under OSHA, employers have an obligation to protect employees from hazardous chemicals, even when the chemical does not fit in an officially defined hazard classification. However, this does not need to be addressed on labels, but will be through safety data sheets and training. How Will Classifications Be Numerically Categorized? Currently with the HMIS/NFPA ratings the higher the number (0 - 4) the more severe the hazard is.
The GHS ratings will typically range from 1 - 5 but individual classes may have more or less than 5 hazard categories, but as the numerical category goes from low to high the severity of the hazard decreases.
HMIS / NFPA: GHS:
0 = Minimal 1 = Severe
4 = Severe 5 = Minimal NOTE: Criteria for classification is acute LD50 or LC50. OSHA did not adopt Category 5 for acute toxicity.
Notice that the category numbers go from low to high with lower numbers being more severe. Example: Acute Oral Toxicity FP >60C (140F) and <=93C (200F) FP >23C (73F) and <=60C (140F) FP <=23C (73F) and BP <=35C (100F) FP <=23C (73F) and BP >35C (100F)
Flammable liquid and vapor
Highly flammable liquid and vapor
Extremely flammable liquid and vapor Category 4 Category 3 Category 2 Category 1 FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS Criteria for classification is flash point/boiling point. OSHA adopted all categories. Example: Flammable Liquids Hazard Statements These are single standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures.
Example 1: Flammable liquids Category
1: Extremely flammable liquid and vapour
2: Highly flammable liquid and vapour
3: Flammable liquid and vapour
4: Combustible liquid
Example 2: Skin Corrosion/Irritation Category
1: Causes severe skin burns and eye damage
2: Causes skin irritation
3: Causes mild skin irritation
Standardized but not fully harmonized
in GHS, but . . .
OSHA has made standardized precautionary phrases mandatory . . .“unless manufacturer, importer or other responsible party can demonstrate that a precautionary statement is inappropriate to a specific substance or mixture . . . ” Precautionary Statements GHS label should include appropriate precautionary information.
Recommended measures for minimizing or preventing possible adverse effects resulting from exposure to, or improper storage and/or handling of hazardous chemicals.
Standardized precautionary statements associate with specific hazard categories
Five types of precautionary information:
General (Read label before use.)
Prevention (Keep container tightly closed.)
Accidental spills, emergency response, and first aid (Get immediate medical attention.)
Storage (Protect from sunlight.)
Disposal (Refer to manufacturer for information on recycling.) Precautionary Information
The GHS label
The GHS SDS Product identifier
- Supplier identifier
- Name, address, telephone
- 5 types; includes 1st aid information
Note: supplier label can include additional information, but such information should provide further detail, but should not contradict standard elements or lower standards of protection. Key Label Elements The GHS Label
The SDS should provide comprehensive information about a chemical substance or mixture.
Primary Use: The Workplace
Employers and workers use the SDS as a source of information about hazards and to obtain advice on safety precautions.
Relates to protection of human health and the environment Role of the SDS in the GHS 1. Identification
2. Hazard(s) identification
3. Composition/information on ingredients
4. First-aid measures
5. Fire-fighting measures
6. Accidental release measures
7. Handling and storage
8. Exposure control/personal protection
9. Physical and chemical properties
10. Stability and reactivity
11. Toxicological information
12. Ecological information
13. Disposal considerations
14. Transport information
15. Regulatory information
16. Other information SDS Format: 16 headings Using the smallest amount of a chemical to do the job (more is not always better), 47 Maintaining machinery and equipment to prevent leaks or releases of chemicals into the work area. Knowing what is in the product your work with, You can protect yourself from hazardous chemicals by: 48 Keeping lids, doors or covers closed on chemical processes, Wearing necessary personal protective equipment. . PPE is the last resort for protection when there is no other means of reducing chemical exposure. Using available ventilation to reduce amounts of chemicals in the air, Protect yourself from hazardous chemicals by: 49 Informing your supervisor of unusual odors, spills, or releases.
This may indicate a leak or release, or if you are wearing a respirator, it may indicate a poor fit, a leak or a used up cartridge.
Large leaks, spills or release of a chemical may overwhelm your respirator. Leave the area of a large spill or chemical release if it is not safe or if you are unsure of what the chemical may be.
Don’t be a hero, get help and proceed cautiously or let the experts clean up the spill. In the case of a leak or spill, protect yourself by: 50 Let your supervisor know,
Find out what the chemical was,
Follow the first aid directions in the MSDS,
Get medical attention as needed,
Check your PPE before going back to the area. If you have been exposed to a chemical and feel sick: