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World War II and the Cold War

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David D. Dry

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of World War II and the Cold War

World War II and the Cold War
"Soviet power … is neither schematic nor adventuristic. It does not work by fixed plans. It does not take unnecessary risks. Impervious to logic of reason, and it is highly sensitive to logic of force. For this reason it can easily withdraw—and usually does when strong resistance is encountered at any point. Thus, if the adversary has sufficient force and makes clear his readiness to use it, he rarely has to do so. If situations are properly handled there need be no prestige-engaging showdowns.”

George F. Kennan: “Long Telegram” (1946)
George F. Kennan: “Long Telegram” (1946)


One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion.......... I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.........The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms

Harry S. Truman: Truman Doctrine (1947)
McCarthyism
Today we are engaged in a final, all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity. The modern champions of communism have selected this as the time, and ladies and gentlemen, the chips are down—they are truly down.....As one of our outstanding historical figures once said, ‘When a great democracy is destroyed, it will not be from enemies from without, but rather because of enemies from within.


Joseph McCarthy: “Enemies from Within” Speech (1950)
Five years after a world war has been won, men’s hearts should anticipate a long peace—and men’s minds should be free from the heavy weight that comes with war. But this is not such a period—for this is not a period of peace. This is a time of “the cold war.” This is a time when all the world is split into two vast, increasingly hostile armed camps—a time of a great armament race.

Today we can almost physically hear the mutterings and rumblings of an invigorated god of war. You can see it, feel it, and hear it all the way from the Indochina hills, from the shores of Formosa, right over into the very heart of Europe itself.


Joseph McCarthy: “Enemies from Within” Speech (1950)

Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)
Berlin Airlift (1948-9)
Korean War
Chinese Civil War (1927-1950)

PRC (Communists)
Mao Zedong

ROC (Nationalists)
Chiang Kai-shek

Taiwan
Taiwan Strait Crises (54, 58)
Space Race


July-Oct., 1940- Battle of Britain

Lend-Lease (1941)

Pearl Harbor (Dec. 7, 1941)
Invasion of USSR (June, 1941)
Initial Japanese Expansion

Allied Island Hopping
War in Europe
War in the Pacific
Rise of the Cold War
Bay of Pigs (1961)
Fidel Castro

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)
Richard Nixon
Vietnamization
Paris Peace Accords (73)
Fall of South Vietnam (75)
Nixon and Brezhnev
Détente (relaxation)
SALT I (1972)
German Military Terms:
Blitzkrieg
Luftwaffe
Panzer
Defeat of Nazi Germany
Battle of Kursk (1944)
Normandy Landings (1944)

May 8, 1945 (VE Day)
Holocaust
Final Solution
Prospects of Japan's Surrender
Okinawa
Kamikaze
United States
USSR
Truman Doctrine

Soviets Test Nuclear Bomb (1949)
NATO (1949)
Warsaw Pact (1955)
Marshall Plan (1947)
Hydrogen Bomb (1952)
Iron Curtain Speech (March, 1946)
Occupied Europe
Victory over Japan
(Sept. 2, 1945)
Nuremberg Trials
Preventing the Spread of Communism
“If he has horns and a tail, so long as Chiang is anti-Communist, we should help him....we can try to reform him later”

Douglas MacArthur
Pick a country to examine the impact of the Cold War. Come prepared to discuss.
Nixon-Khrushchev Kitchen Debate (1959)
United Nations Coalition
Peaceful Coexistence
Nikita Khrushchev
Joseph Stalin (died 1953)
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
"I never received a more direct shock.... As I turned over and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me. There were no British or American capital ships in the Indian Ocean or the Pacific except the American survivors of Pearl Harbour, who were hastening back to California. Over all this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme, and we everywhere were weak and naked.”

-WINSTON S. CHURCHILL
Shoah
The United States
Turning of the Tide (1942-43)
Stalingrad
North African/Italian Campaigns
A short time ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, and destroyed its usefulness to the enemy. That bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of TNT.

The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor. They have been repaid manyfold. And the end is not yet. With this bomb we have now added a new and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing power of our armed forces. In their present form these bombs are now in production, and even more powerful forms are in development.

It is an atomic bomb. It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe. The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the Far East.…


Harry S. Truman, "Statement on the Use of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima"
North vs. South Korea
Containment
Domino Theroy
Korean Armistice (1953)
Vietnam War
The Cold War World
Eastern Bloc
Non-aligned Movement
Examine the Cold War history of a nation and see if you can connect your nation's history to some of these terms/ideas
Containment

Domino Theory

Truman Doctrine

Marshall Plan

NSC-68

Yalta/Potsdam Conferences

NATO

Warsaw Pact

Eastern Bloc

Non-Aligned Movement

They (the USSR) must be made to understand we will never compromise our principles and standards. We will never give away our freedom. We will never abandon our belief in God. And we will never stop searching for a genuine peace. But we can assure none of these things America stands for through the so-called nuclear freeze solutions proposed by some.

I urge you to beware the temptation of pride—the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.

I believe we shall rise to the challenge. I believe that communism is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written. I believe this because the source of our strength in the quest for human freedom is not material, but spiritual. And because it knows no limitation, it must terrify and ultimately triumph over those who would enslave their fellow man. For in the words of Isaiah: “He giveth power to the faint; and to them that have no might He increased strength…. But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength; they shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary

Ronald Reagan: “Evil Empire” Speech (1983)
Strategic Defense Initiative "Star Wars"
Ronald Reagan
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan (1979-89)
Mujahideen
Osama bin Laden
Taliban
Olympic Boycotts (80/84)
Funding Resistance
Mikhail Gorbachev
Glasnost (openness)
Perestroika (restructuring)
Problems of Communism in Eastern Europe
Defense Spending
“Evil Empire”
Economic Stagnation
Afghanistan War
Reduction of Subsidies to Eastern Europe
Chernobyl (1986)
Repressed Discontent
Ronald Reagan's speech (June 1987)
Fall of Berlin Wall (November 1989)
Fall of the USSR
Dissolution of the Soviet Union (Dec. 1991)
Cold War Technologies
Interstate Highway System (1956)
ENIAC Computer (1946)
ARPANET (1969)
Others...
Globalization
Technology

International Organizations

Global Economics


Global Culture

The Planet and the Environment
1) Pick a topic and locate a news story on the topic (be prepared to summarize it)

2) Explain the trajectory you think we are on for the future with regard to your general topic

3) Discuss what, if anything, we might learn from the past as we handle this topic in the future

Globalization
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
John F. Kennedy
Nikita Khrushchev

Counterculture
Nixon and China (1972)
Fall of the Soviet Union
"I find it a bit sad that there is no photo of me hanging on the walls in the Berlin Museum at Checkpoint Charlie."

- David Hasselhoff

Sept. 01, 1939- German invasion of Poland
Sept. 03, 1939- France and Britain declare war of Germany
Sept. 17, 1939- USSR invades Poland
Sept. 27, 1939- Poland surrenders is is divided
May-June 22, 1940- Battle of France
United States Isolationism
Neutrality Acts (1935, 37,39)
“Arsenal for Democracy”
Cash and Carry (1939)
Peacetime Draft (1940)
Oral History Assignment
Oral History Final Paper
War Crimes
Crimes Against Humanity
USSR to enter war with Japan
Division of Germany & Berlin
Eastern Europe "friendly" to USSR
The United Nations
Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
War Crimes Trials/Reparations
Demand Japanese Surrender
Alteration of German/Polish Border
First Cold War Policies
Growing Divisions
Growing Tensions
Soviet Leadership
French Indochina
Geneva Conference 1954
Ho Chi Minh (North)
Diem (South)
Lyndon B. Johnson
NSC-68 (1950)
U-2 Incident (1960)
Berlin Wall (1961)
Eastern European Elections (89-90)
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Rising Tensions
What is due on Friday?
Class Extra Credit
Course Evaluation
Eurasian Economic Union (2014)
NASA
Apollo 11 (July 20, 1969)
Sputnik (1957)
Yuri Gargarin (1961)
Soviet Space Program
Full transcript