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Valerie Santoso

on 20 August 2015

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Transcript of Mesopotamia

Sumer - Sixth millennium B.C.E - 2185 B.C.E.

Akkad - 2334 B.C.E- 2150 B.C.E

Babylon - 1792 B.C.E - 1595 B.C.E

Assyrian - 1250 B.C.E - 612 B.C.E

New Babylon- 600 B.C.E - 550 B.C.E
Areas surrounding the Tigris, Nile, and Euphrates River. Including Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine (Fertile Crescent/Southwest Asia)
Around 4000 B.C.E. first cities were built
Cities within walls
Government controlled life within the city and outside
Wars with neighbors

To Empire -

Fights between cites
Around 2300 B.C.E. Mesopotamia was ruled by several regional empires

Hammurabi -
Concept based on eye for an eye
Judges declared punishments based on their crime
Inequality based on wealth
First form of writing
Developed around the fourth millennium B.C.E. by Sumerians
Styluses were pressed in the clay tablets creating symbols representing sound, syllables, and ideas.
Used by many Mesopotamian civilizations to record information.
First settlement was in the 7th millennium and fell in 612 BCE by
Located near the east bank of the Tigris River
Popular religious place of worshiping Ishtar, the goddess of fertility.
Polytheistic beliefs-
More than one god
Most people in Mesopotamian were polytheistic
Examples: Adad (aka ishkur) the god of storms, Ashur (aka Enlil) the god of principals and Anu (aka An) the sky god.


Overview- It is in a grid shaped pattern, made out of clay.
Parts- There are wedge shaped impressions on the tablet to show objects or tasks.
Title- N/A
Interrelationships- Wedge shapes on there were to represent words/pictogram
Conclusion- It was a cuneiform that was used to record information.
To Ishtar, Begetress of All.

1. O fulfiller of the commands of Bel..........
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
Mother of the gods, fulfiller of the commands of Bel
You who brings forth verdure, you O lady of mankind,---
5. Begetress of all, who makes all offspring thrive
Mother Ishtar, whose might no god approaches,
Majestic lady, whose commands are powerful
A request I will proffer, which---may it bring good to me!
O lady, from my childhood I have been exceedingly hemmed in by trouble!
10. Food I did not eat, I was bathed in tears!
Water I did not quaff, tears were my drink!
My heart is not glad, my soul is not cheerful;
....................I do not walk like a man.
15. ...........painfully I wail!
My sighs are many, my sickness is great!
O my lady, teach me what to do, appoint me a resting-place!
My sin forgive, lift up my countenance!
20. My god, who is lord of prayer, ----may he present my prayer to you!
My goddess, who is mistress of supplication, ---may she present my prayer to you!
God of the deluge, lord of Harsaga, ---may he present my prayer to you!
The god of pity, the lord of the fields, ---may he present my prayer to you!
God of heaven and earth, the lord of Eridu,---may he present my prayer to you!
21. The mother of the great water, the dwelling of Damkina,---
may she present my prayer to you!
Marduk, lord of Babylon, ---may he present my prayer to you!
His spouse, the exalted offspring (?) of heaven and earth,---
may she present my prayer to you!
The exalted servant, the god who announces the good name,---
may he present my prayer to you!
22. The bride, the first-born of Ninib, ---may she present my prayer to you!

Primary Source: Prayer to Ishtar

Guisepi, Robert A., and F. Roy Williams. "Akkad and the Akkadians of Mesopotamia (Ancient Akkad)." Akkad and the Akkadians of Mesopotamia (Ancient Akkad). University of California, n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

"Assyria Timeline." - Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Mark, Joshua J. "Cuneiform." Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 17 Aug. 2015

Mallowan, Max, Sir. "Nineveh | Ancient City, Iraq." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 25 June 2015. Web. 17 Aug. 2015.
"Ziggurats." Ziggurats. The British Museum, n.d. Web. 17 Aug. 2015.

"Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters Explore." Gods, Goddesses, Demons & Monsters Explore. The British Museum, n.d. Web. 17 Aug. 2015.

Haider, Bilal. "Job Specialization and Public Works." Mesopotamia. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Aug. 2015.
Author- Worshiper
POV- Babylon citizen
Purpose- To worship Ishtar
Is it reliable or credible - It is reliable
When was it written- Third millennium B.C.E.
Historical events during this time- Bronze age was in play during this time period.
Where was it written- Mesopotamia, Babylon
Close Reading:
What is it about- A man who is praying to the goddess Ishtar and asking for forgiveness.
What are some details- The person was a male and he prioritized the goddess Ishtar over everything else.
What evidence is provided to support claims- In 5 he brags about the goddess Isthar. In 20 he mentions other gods but puts Ishtar over them.
What evidence is missing- The author
How does this document relate to other text you have read- This document is a polytheistic document that coincides with the Egypt book of the dead since they are both polytheistic.
How does this relate to your visual and artifacts you've seen- NONE
How does this document relate to your personal experiences- Often my family prays God who we put over everything and everyone similar to how this man has put Ishtar over everything.
By Eric Jang, Richard Pham, Valerie Santoso, & Alan Tran
Full transcript