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Rocks - Summary

A presentation about rock types, their properties and their uses.

Aisling Rayne

on 20 April 2010

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Transcript of Rocks - Summary

ROCKS Properties Formations Uses Different Types Formation Rocks can be separated into
three basic types; Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous Each type is created through
its own unique process, although
they are all indirectly linked through a process called the Rock Cycle.
For example... Plutonic Volcanic Sedimentary: Sedimentary rocks are formed from any type of rock that has been exposed at the Earths surface. It is a result of weathering and erosion at those rocks, until they have disloved into tiny particles. The broken particles are carried through mass movement, water flows, glaciers or wind and are then deposited in strata (these include the ocean and sea, in rivers or in lakes). The particles then form a structure, known as bedding. As more layers are deposited, the lower layers are crushed together from the weight of the upper levels (they are 'lithified'). The rock is cemented together under the pressure, and Sedimentary rock is formed. Sedimentary rocks can be divided into Clastic (form from weathering) and Non-Clastic (form from chemical reactions) sections. Igneous Metamorphic Within a volcano lies the crust and many other rocks. However with so much heat, the rock begins to melt, thus forming magma. The magma, less dense than the surrounding solid rock, slowly moves upwards, to the upper area of the volcano. Once in the cooler region, the magma cools and crystallizes, and so produces igneous rock. This formation can be divided into two types - Plutonic (intrusive) or Volcanic (extrusive). Plutonic rock is when the magma remains under the Earth's surface, where it intrudes on the older rocks (hence the name, 'intrusive') and cools there. These are made up of small crystals. Volcanic rock has errupted from the volcano, and can be found scattered around the erruption site. This type (extrusive) has large crystals. Metamorphic rocks are formed deep underground - 12 to 16 kilometres - and are made up of many different types of rock. The heat (caused by the magma deep in the Earth) and pressure (caused by layers of rock piled upon each other) is so great, that it can change rocks - over a few million years. The heat can be as low as 100 degrees Celcius, or reach temperatures around 800 degrees Celcius. All the pressure and heat, over the long period of time forms a new kind of rock - Metamorphic. Properties Each different type of rock
has different properties -
not only do Igneous, Sedimentary
and Metamorphic rocks have unique types, but each type, such as lime stone, granite, slate and many others. Some examples and their properties include... Igneous Some properties of
Igneous rocks include... Are usually made of two
or more minerals
Usually has no layering
Made up of crystals (size
depends of type)
May be light or dark coloured
Usually contains no fossils
Rarely reacts with acid
Occasionally has openings or
glass fibres
Can be fine-grained or glassy
Sedimentary Properties of Sedimentary
rocks are... Usually contain fossils
May react with acid
Usually has layers
(can be flat or curved)
Composed of pieces cemented
Large colour variety
Often contains pores between
Particle size may vary

Metamorphic The properties of Metamorphic
rock may include... Fossils are rarely found
May react with acid
Rock may have alternating
dark/light bands
May be composed of only
one mineral
Made up of many different
sized crystals
May have layered visible
Rarely have pores/openings
Granite Plutonic/Intrusive
Is a pink/grey colour
Is acidic
Has large crystals
(can be seen)
Coarse-grained Basalt Obsidian Volcanic/Extrusive
Colour ranges from
dark grey to black
Fine-grained (need
high power microscope
to see)
Usually black (or
very dark)
Shiny and smooth

Sandstone Lime Stone Shale Usually red or grey
Sand grains are cemented
Is usually quite soft
Is grainy
May contain fossils
Colour ranges from
white to grey
Composed of calcite
sometimes fossils
Is acidic
Gneiss Marble Slate Pink/grey colour
Foliated texture
Very common
Is usually white
or light coloured
but can come in a
range of colours

Is dark-grey to
black in colour
Is foliated
Composed of clay and volcanic ash
Is fine-grained
Usually dark grey
in colour
Made up of compacted
Is fine-grained
Shows parallel layering

Uses Basalt

Name / Type of Rock / Use Igneous = Used in road building materials
Mineral = Used in cements and mortars and the production of lime
Igneous = Used for buildings, monuments, and tombstones
Metamorphic = Used in building, floors, tile in bathrooms
Igneous = Used in making arrowheads and knives
Igneous = Used in scouring, scrubbing, and polishing materials
Mineral = Used in making glass, electrical components, optical lenses
Sedimentary = Used in the building industry for houses
Metamorphic = Used for roofs, chalkboards, and patio walks
By Aisling Rayne
10LS Rocks have many different uses.
Here are a few rocks and their uses. Thanks for watching!! Images http://geology.com/rocks/pictures/sandstone.jpg
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