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Transcript of Asian Empires
The Silk Road
Who wanted to get to China to make trades for specific goods?
Why did they want these goods? What was the profit margin like?
Christian missionaries come with merchants from Europe to China.. What happened?
Connected several parts of Europe all the way to China
What about contemporary China???
Our First Stop Along the Silk Road
Explain to me what you already know about the Silk Road. What countries were involved? What were people doing along the SIlk Road?
So what do we know?
Countries-China, India, Pakistan, Tibet, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Persia, Iraq, Turkey, Greece, Korea, Japan
Goods Traded-Silk, Tea, Sugar, Porcelain, Spices.
Over 4000 miles long
Large Caravans... Why?
How long would it take to travel round trip from Rome to China?
Term "Silk Road" was not around during the time period.
No single route across Asia
Donkeys, Horses, Camels
Most travelers only went a few hundred miles at a time.
Marco Polo-Traveled from Europe to China by land then back home by sea.
You are going to create a map of the Silk Road on a large piece of paper in small groups. You will map out multiple routes taken by land. You will mark out major cities and stops along the way. Your map should include labels of all the major countries and cities along the Silk Road. It should include what goods came from where. Also, make sure your map is colored and has imagery. EX-Pictures of goods placed in the countries they came from or forms of travel along the routes. Your poster is due on October 6th at the end of class. As this is a group project, I will give you plenty of time in class to complete it. Make sure you take advantage of this time as it will be difficult to get it done at home in groups. The project is worth 20 points. If you accurately mark out the routes and cities and have imagery and color, you will receive full credit. I suggest you also provide eachother with roles and tasks to complete at home individually to get more work done faster. Get Started!
How was China involved in the Silk Road? Why might they want to get involved in international trade? Do you think having the Silk Road today could be beneficial for China? Why?
New Silk Road Revival
An attempt to connect Central Asia, Middle East, Europe
Bejing spending 2 trillion dollars for infrastructure to 68 countries or major cities
What's in it for China?
Boost the economy of poorer areas in China by trading with new countries
Domestic brands will grow into global brands
Made in China
Could it be a land grab?
Spread Chinese influence
Building bridges instead of walls-Connectivity
New roads, high speed rail, pipeline, ports and airports
Profits were high from goods moving from China to Europe
Chinese forming a new dynasty after kicking out their Mongol rulers
Ming Dynasty-Dominant power in Asia
Tribute expected to be paid by Europeon countries... Why?
Hongwu-First Ming emperor, drove Mongols out of china
Wanted to expand tribute system-Went on 7 voyages throughout Asia and Africa. Distributed gifts like silk... Why?
Only government was to conduct foreign trade... Why?
Manchu's invade China-End of Ming Dynasty.
Qing Dynasty-Expands China's borders to include Taiwan, Part of Central Asia, Mongolia, and Tibet.
Foreign states which wish to trade with China must abide by their rules-Paying tribute and trading at special ports
What's the Big Deal with Silk?
Used as clothing for royality
Eventually adopted widely through society
Can also be used for fishing lines, making paper, or musical instrument strings
Given as royal gifts and tributes
Became a form of currency or exchange
Keeps you cool and is extremely absorbent
Kimonos in Japan and Wedding Saris in India
Mughal Empire in India
What were some of the things or ways in which India contributed to the development of the Silk Road? Knowing what we know about the new Silk Road potentially being created, how might India feel about this?
Contributions to the Silk Road
Transmission of Buddhism-Cultural Connections
Roman and Chinese connections-Acted as a medium
Position on the Silk Road
Goods Coming out of India
Babur-Built army, laid down foundation for future. Original ruler.
Akbar-Babur's grandson, believed in obtaining a large military. Instilled religious freedom.
Influences from other cultures welcomed
Portugese were first to reach India, followed by Dutch, then the French
Expansion of the Arts
Why might this time period have seen a major growth in both variety and volume of artwork in India?
Decorative Arts-Every day items having detailed artwork incorporated
Painting-Naturalism, Color, Royal Influence
Fabric-Extensive detail and Warmth
Why might India be in opposition of the new Silk Road proposal? Based off of their history, does this make sense? Why or why not?
India's Own Trade Route Plan
In response to China-NSTC
Link India to Iran, Russia, and Central Asia by sea
Regions have been rapidly growing and intergrading together in trade
Will save these areas time along trade route and money
-30% cheaper and 40% faster
A Shi'ite Muslim Dynasty that is blended from Persians, Ottomans, and Arabs
What is cultural blending? Where might this cultural blending have taken place? What sort of things get "blended" when this happens within a nation? Can you list any examples that you can think of that you have seen of cultural blending?
Causes of Cultural Blending
Impact of Cultural Blending
Location-Iran or ancient Persia
Aligned with Shi'a branch of Islam-Second largest branch of Islam, adhere to Ali
Large and powerful military
Shah Abbas-Took the throne in 1587. Created a culture that drew from best aspects of Ottoman, Persian, and Arab cultures. This became known as the Safavid Golden Age.
Changes During the Safavid Golden Age
Military-Limited power, Created two armies that served him alone
Government-Punished corruption severely, promoted competent officials
Religion-Allowed all religions which expanded industry and trade with other nations
Esfahan-Created a new capital, considered to be one of the most beautiful in the world. Put artwork and style on display
Demand for Persian Carpets-Originally only Persian designs. As culture blended, incorporated many more
10 X 20 Perisan Rug-Can you guess the value today?
Create your own Nation
In small groups you are going to develop your own nation. Your nation should be a "cultural blending" of at least three countries in the contemporary world, one of which must be America. The other two countries must come from two different continents. Come up with a name for this country. In your writing you must list what sort of traits the culture and the people have, what are your main exports or trade goods, what is your economy like, what is your military like, day to day life, language, population, food, entertainment, art. Make sure to include all the aspects listed. Each factor must be supported with evidence based off what the three countries you chose to blend are like. Your new country should also be drawn out and have a reference as to where it is on the globe. You will be provided with a large piece of paper to put all this information on.
The Ottoman Empire
Look up on your computers the Byzantine Empire. How is this relevant to the Ottomans? What area was this empire located? What happened to them?
Decline of Byzantine Empire-Turkish state next to the empire becomes united and expands
Ghazis-Turkish warriors of Islam. Raided Byzantine Empire
Osman-Followers known as Ottomans
Weapons obtained from the Silk Road-Helped them gain power: Gun Powder and Cannons
Muslim state built in Antolia-Osman's successors expanded this state into the Ottoman Empire
Orkhan I-Osman's son, becomes sultan
Captured states maintain local rule under appointed officials
Improved the lives of most peasants
Muslims required to serve in the Turkish army
Architecture, art, and literature flourish
Modern Day Turkey
Mehmed II and Constantinople
Sultan has 4 sons who fight over the throne. Mehmed I is victorious. Mehmed I has a son named Murad II. He becomes the first leader to expand Ottoman Empire. He then has a son named Mehmed II.
Achieved the greatest feat in Ottoman history
Location of Constantinople-Between key trade routes for the Ottomans
Leads attack on Constantinople
Used cannons to break down their walls
Enters the city after attacking from sides
Rebuilds city into modern day Istanbul and allowed for all religions and backgrounds into the city
Mehmed II has a grandson known as Selim the Grim who greatly expands the empire by conquering many nations. Selim the Grim then has a son named Suleyman I or Suleyman the Lawgiver
Ottoman Empire reaches its peak under his rule
Dominated the Mediterrinean and had immense naval power
Controlled all trade routes due to strategic military conquests along African coast
Was the most powerful monarch on earth at the time
Janissaires-Loyal soldiers drafted at a young age from conquered territories. Educated an converted to Islam. Loyal only to the sultan.
Ottomans granted religious freedom to everyone. Freedom of worship keeps conflict to a minimum.
Create a brochure for those traveling along the Silk Road. Within the brochure you should include, places you would stop along the way, religions in the area, goods that are traded out of that area. You are trying to sell individuals on the Silk Road, attempting to get people to want to travel there. Your brochure should have imagery and color. Be creative. Make it visually appealing. Your brochure will be due Friday, October 16th. Be prepared to share. There will be a guide on Schoology.
New Silk Road
Shipment time from China to Turkey reduced from 30 days to 10 days
Route for shipments reduced by over 1800 miles
Large investments made by China for infrastructure in Turkey due to its strategic location between China and the West
Turkey lies in the middle corridor of all the routes being created on the new Silk Road, which is the fastest from China to Europe
Located near the end of Silk Route, will boost trade volume immensely. Chinese goods going to Europe will constantly be moving through
Location, Location, Location
Take the rest of the period and answer the following prompt. Based off of everything we have learned about all of these empires and the Silk Road, what are some of the major impacts we feel today from this history? Reference at least 4 key facts, events, religions, people, or economic policies that impact us today based off of these empires and the original Silk Road. The assignment should be roughly 1 page long. Be specific with your answer. This assignment will be worth 5 points.
Europe and the Silk Road
The Silk Road connected Rome and China, two nations who had no interaction prior to this trade route. They knew very little about each other before the Silk Road connected them.
Silk in Europe
Considered an exotic luxury and became extremely popular
Used as gifts and was traded extensively throughout Europe
Rome very dependent on trade for economy
Traded gold and silver
Based on what we have learned about India and all the potential options for new trade routes being put into place, which do you believe is the most beneficial for India? What about the United States? Can we tie these two together?
What sort of goods stand out to you here in relation to their respective cultures? Take a minute are list a few goods that stand out to you on this list. Why do they stand out?
What about disease????
What do we already know about the plague that tore apart Europe during this period? What caused this event to take place? Could the Silk Road have played a role? How so?
Trade and the Black Death in Europe
Started in Asia and spread to Europe very quickly
Goods that were transported on the Silk Road between China and Europe were accompanied by rats... and what do rats have?
14th Century Silk Road controlled by Mongols who traveled in large caravans. These large caravans along the Silk Road produced a lot of waste attracting rats to certain areas.
What differences do we notice about this Silk Road vs the old Silk Road?
Ancient Romans first to become aware of materials being traded ie:silk
Often traded gold and silver in exchange for these goods
Middle ages-Traffic along routes minimized due to decline of Roman Empire
High population required goods to be brought in to survive
Roman Empire Splits-Byzantine Empire