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Pain, Injury & Disease

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Carrie Ijichi

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of Pain, Injury & Disease

Freedom from
Pain, Injury & Disease

Pain & Injury
Animal pain is an
aversive sensory
and
emotional
experience representing an
awareness
by the animal of
damage
or
threat
to the integrity of its tissues
Practical Difficulties
There are several factors that
complicate this freedom:
Solutions
Consider whether a
procedure is really needed
Disease
"A disease is a
physical
or
mental
condition
where a
normal function
of an animal is
disturbed
and
harmed
."
Summary
Although we have looked at them separately, pain, injury and disease are
closely interlinked
Learning Outcomes
Judge the
effectiveness
of current
national
and i
nternational legislation
regulating
animal welfare

Evaluate the
causal factors
for,
and
solutions
to, welfare issues within
animal
housing systems

Aims
Look at the
problems & solutions
associated
with this freedom

Explore how contravening this freedom

affects
the animal

Last week we...
Tomorrow we will be...
Defined the first Freedom:
Freedom from Hunger & Thirst
Discussed the
practicalitie
s and
difficulties
in maintaining this freedom
Explored the
effects
of contravening this freedom, including malnutrition and starvation
Looked at how to
assess
whether an animal is experiencing hunger or thirst
Outlined some
solutions
to these problems
It changes the animal's
physiology
and
behaviour
to
reduce
or
avoid
the damage, to reduce the
likelihood of recurrence
and to
promote recovery
Molony (1997, p 293)
Disagreement
Scientists
may not agree about species
where new evidence suggest they may feel pain
Veterinarians
disagree on whether animals feel
pain and how painful procedure are based on
whether they are
male or female
and how
long ago they graduated (Taylor et al, 2002)
Prejudice
affects societies attitudes to pain:
Pain by analogy
biases our attention to certain species - I recognise the pain response of that animal and identify with it so I care about that species
The level of
bond
we share with the species or individual
The
inconvenience
of that animal feeling pain
Costs &
Practicalities
The
cost
and
added time
of using
pain relief when a large number of lambs
need to be castrated
An experiment may focus on recognizing post-procedural pain (e.g. Pitchett et al, 2003)
Practical difficulties in giving the
correct
amount
of pain relief which varies
with species, body size weight
& condition, age etc.
Species such as cats & donkeys are known to be
difficult to assess pain in. How do you tell if a
fish is in pain?
Even within species,
individuals express pain differently
and may have different levels of
tolerance
depending on their personality
(Ijichi et al 2014)
Difficulties in Assessing Pain
It's function is to motivate the animal to protect itself by:
Minimising
the damage caused by removing itself from the situation causing pain
Protect
the affected area of damage
Learning
to avoid similar situations again
The Effect
of Pain
Pain causes very strong avoidance
motivation & behavioural disturbance such as:
It causes significant stress and biological
disturbance such as:
Increased HR & HRV
Increased blood pressure
Activation of the HPA axis
Limb guarding/lameness
Withdrawal
Loss of appetite
Aggression
Fear responses in the context of the original pain experience
Tail docking in cattle is used in some countries to improve udder hygiene but this has shown to be ineffective (Schreiner & Ruegg, 2002)
Tail docking in dogs was used to prevent injury to the tail but this is only likely in working dogs and the legislation has changed to reflect this
Refinement of the Procedure
Using ear tagging instead of notching in piglets as this has been shown to cause less stress (Marchant-Forde et al. 2009)
Staff can also be trained to refine their assessment of animal pain to improve the provision of pain relief (Roughan & Flecknell, 2006)
The 3 Rs in scientific research have reduced the numbers of animals feeling pain and levels of pain they may be exposed to
Allodynia - pain resulting from a
mechanical stimulus
Hyperalgesia - increased sensitivity to pain
Scientific Assessment
This will reduce grounds for disagreement and stimulate changes in legislation
This might test whether a particular species
has the capacity to feel pain or whether a prodecure causes pain
Do crustasceans have the capacity to feel pain?
Compare the behaviour and physiology of crabs against the criteria set:
Do they have suitable receptors and CNS
Do they show avoidance learning
Do they have
opioid receptors
and
respond to analgesic
or local
anaesthetics
Do they show protective motor reactions
Do they trade-off pain against other motivations
Elwood, 2012
Is De-horning Painful?
This experiment compared ear flicking in four groups of calves:
De-horned with no pain relief
De-horned with pain relief
Sham de-horning with no pain relief
Sham de-horning with pain relief
Weary et al, 2006
This design allows us to separate the effect of the procedure and the effect of the pain relief to ensure that the differences in behaviour seen are due to pain.
"Illness is the
subjective
sensation of
experiencing

a diseased state"
Appropriate Care
to Avoid Injury
Good health is the
absence
of disease or injury
Cockram & Hughes,
2011 pp 120
"We lay stress on the incidence of disease and on the guarantees that a sick animal will be quickly recognised and appropriately treated or slaughtered"
The Brambell Committee,
1965
The
Effects of Disease
Pain
- lesions, visceral distension
The sensation of illness
- thirst, fever, nausea
Discomfort
- mite infestations
Weakness
leaving the animal is less able to cope
Impaired perception
leaving the animal vulnerable
Reduced mobility
Thermal discomfort
- fever/heat loss
Emaciation
Disease may result in:
Practical
Difficulties
Knowledgeable animal handling such as that set for scientific procedures
Appropriate housing - non-slip flooring, well maintained fencing etc.
Minimising the imact of aggression between animals - de-horning, stocking densities etc
Tell me what you notice about this information...
In some cases,
higher welfare standards
are associated with
higher levels of disease
Organic systems are very limited in the methods of disease control that they can use
Artificial selection
has caused high incidences of
congenital disease
that would have been selected against under
natural selection (e.g. Asher et al 2009, Rauw et al 1998)
Solutions
Health plans

-

plans preventative & treatment regimes, health records and reviews, action plans
Biosecurity
- strict guidelines to prevent disease
from entering, spreading within or leaving a property
Culling
- to reduce the suffering of the affected individual or to control spread
Selective Breeding
- this could select for disease resitant individuals or animals that do not carry the gene
for a congenital disease
Injury
will cause
pain
and may lead to
disease
through
infection
Pain is a
stressor
and may
reduce immune function
, leading to
disease
Many
diseases
are themselves
painful
Therefore, the
interaction
between these factors have important implications for animal welfare
Looking at Freedom from Discomfort including
sources,
its effects
and solutions to animal discomfort
Recommended Reading from today...
"Animal Welfare" Appleby et al 2011
Chapters 5 & 8
Completing a Socrative quiz on the first three freedoms so read over the relevant lectures and bring a device to class
Full transcript