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Golden Age of Greece
Transcript of Golden Age of Greece
- Temples were built to house deity statues.
- Surprisingly, the interior of the temples were
not used as meeting places.
- Instead they served as storage for any
offerings that were made to the temple.
... they were made of
- Later, temples were made of stone/marble.
- The statues of deities could be made of different materials. While some were made of ivory or stone, others contained gold.
For example, this statue of Athena, at one point,
had gold on it. However, the gold was removed so that Athens could pay it's troops.
The inner chamber at
the back of a temple.
: The broadened end of a wall.
Form a porch with columns between.
: The main room of a Greek
temple. The statue was placed here.
Colonade or Peristyle or Portico
: A ring of columns around the temple that were on a porch.
Architecture Styles: Three Orders
The Doric style had:
- Broad columns
- No base
- Simple capital (the top of the column)
- Two plain horizontal bands above the
have rectangles above columns
and paintings, with sculpture in between
Doric: Temple of Apollo
The Ionic style had:
- Thin columns
- A small base
- Ornate capital - often a scroll
- Three long narrow bands above
had painted carvings
Ionic: Temple of Artemis
The Corinthian style:
- was the most slender
- had a base
- was the most ornate with
*** These styles are still seen today (Government buildings)***
Corinthian: Temple of Olympian Zeus
Drama: Part of religious festivals. A chorus of men danced and sang and described the gods.
Was the patron of the Athenian dramatic festival.
Also known as Bacchus
Some Major Festival Sites
Some of the major festival sites included:
Fun Fact: Greek Tragedy was born in Athens
music and had dramatic
- Originally had 1 actor. This was later changed to two, and then three.
- Actor(s) would talk to the chorus. It wasn't until later that they spoke to each other.
- Later, they also performed
about gods and social and moral issues of the times (social commentary).
- Some later plays commented on the judges and philosophers. These had a more passionate feeling.
Added a second actor to the play. E.g. Agamemnon.
Added a third actor and more characterization. E.g. Antigone
Created plays that were critical of gods, motives, and morals. E.g. The Frogs.
Plays involving comedy and chorus. He ridiculed philosophers and democracy. E.g. The Poet and the Women.
Physical Aspects of Theatre
- Open air, orchestra at front for dancing.
- All men performing (Usually they play a number of roles each).
- Simple costumes, they also used masks.
- Enacted myths, legends.
- plays showed how humans are constantly struggling against evil, injustice, destiny, or the gods.
What do we know about ancient Greek pottery...?
We know there is a lot of it. Athens and Corinth especially have yielded a lot of pottery.
Pottery was used for practical reasons, but it was also beautiful.
Showed painting of the gods and humans.
History of Greek Pottery
Types of Pottery:
Sculptures originally depicted gods. Later, it shifted its focus to men.
Tried to depict the perfect human form/body
Kore -> Woman
Funerary: Urns, steles, votive reliefs, tomb wall paintings.
Jewelery: Ivory, hammered gold, gems, granulation, enameling.
An epic is a long work that tells of a heroic achievement.
- Homer selected myths + legends about gods and left a written record.
- His work told of ideal men striving
The Trojan War
Odysseus' journey home
Lyrics were short stories sung to the accompaniment of the Lyre.
These stories told of feeling and the problems of the people.
Ode's were songs of glory, E.g. Pindar, our source for the Olympic games.
They were bragging rights for the victors.
Philosophy ---> Meaning
Philosopher actually means "lover of
- Professional educators who toured Greece offering instruction in a wide range of subjects.
- Emphasized the importance of public speaking, and gave courses in oratory & debate.
- Stressed logic and clear definitions
Sophists became more popular in cities like Athens where being able to speak eloquently and persuasively was becoming more and more important.
- Accused of helping the rich (they charged a substantial fee).
- Were charged with undermining religion and patriotism.
Socrates used the question and answer approach to
draw out people's ignorance and confusion.
This was known as the
He challenged political and religious ideas.
- Questioned democracy (even praised Sparta on occasion).
- Questioned the deities, and was accused of adding gods to the Pantheon.
One of these new gods was the "conscience"
For this he was sentenced to death by drinking a concoction that contained hemlock, which was a poison.
He never wrote down his ideas, most of what we know of Socrates was written by his students (Plato)
Plato was a student of Socrates
He began his own school -
This was the first University
He wrote many works including:
- A perfect state of Utopia
- Love and the soul
In the Republic, Socrates, along with various Athenians and foreigners, discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether or
not the just man is happier
than the unjust man. They do
this by considering a series of
different cities coming in to
This culminates with them talking about
a city that has no democracy. Instead it is ruled by philosopher kings.
Uses the metaphor of a ship
'A true pilot must of necessity pay attention to the seasons, the heavens, the stars, the winds, and everything proper to the craft if he is really to rule a ship."
Aristotle tried to understand the world and all knowledge in it.
He created a taxonomy of knowledge
- Did this by organizing knowledge into
subjects: Ethics, zoology, physics, geometry...
- Wanted to base all knowledge upon reason
- Tried to prove his theories through
- Taught in lecture style. He considered himself
The Greek symposium were houses where Greek men would debate, plot, boast, or revel with others.
They were frequently held to celebrate the introduction of young men into aristocratic society.
Those participating in the symposium would recline on pillowed couches and drink wine. Unless you were a young man... then you had to sit up. Older men were allowed to recline.
Food and wine were served, entertainment was provided, and there could even be songs and games (hired entertainment or slaves).
Would talk about anything from philosophy to love.
Wine was served in a Crater!!! Served with water. Only barbarians drink wine straight.
- Hippokrates is known as the "father of Western medicine"
- He established medicine as its own discipline, distinct from other fields that it was once related to (philosophy)
But what was so revolutionary about him?
Beliefs and Methods
- Believed that diseases were caused naturally (not because of gods)
- Also believed that the body itself had the capacity to heal itself. This meant rest and relaxation were paramount.
- Hippokrates was also surprisingly kind to the patient. He emphasized keeping the patient, clean, and sterile. For example, only clean water and wine were ever used on wounds.
- Hesitant to use drugs on patients.
An oath taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically and honestly
Kouros -> Man
- Wrote the book "In The Surgery"