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Transcript of Thesis presentation
Chapter 2. Literature review
Chapter 3. Methodology
Chapter 4. Data analysis
Chapter 5. Conclusion 1.1 Background of the research Chapter 1. Introduction 3.1 Research Design Chapter 3. Methodology 5.1 Overall discussion Chapter 5. Conclusion UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' EMOTIONS TOWARD BRANDS:
BRAND LOVE & BRAND HATE Anna ROG Lia ZARANTONELLO
Viviane CHEN 4.1 Study 1 Chapter 4: Data analysis Why this topic? 1.2 Research Problem and Objectives II. Literature review 2.1 The emotional state 2.2 The role of emotions in Marketing 3.2 Qualitative researches 3.3 The sample design 4.2 Study 2 Thank you for your time and attention! Collages Personal interest
Key words analysis
Main themes, theme's nature
List of emotions and brands mentioned Key word analysis
It is a psychological connection between a consumer and whether a firm, a brand or an employee (Anderson and Narus, 1991)
Consummers want to be pleased, and share emotions with brands (Sarkar, 2011) Assess consumers' negative feelings toward a brand What is an emotion?
Basic emotions and great emotions Transcription of the interviews
Collecting of the collages
List of emotions and brands mentioned
Mental maps Research problem: Understanding consumers' emotions toward brands Objectives:
What are brand love and brand hate?
What leads to brand love and brand hate?
Is it possible to change these emotions? from the Latin "emovere, emotum" = remove, shake
"A mental state of readiness that arises from cognitive appraisals of events or thoughts", Bagozzi (1999) Questionnaire with open questions ZMET Strengths of our qualitative studies Our conceptual framework BRAND HATE BRAND LOVE Consumer’s perception
Consumer’s requirement 3.2 Qualitative researches Four open questions
Control of the order effects
Through personal & IESEG network
Identify the main reasons why consumers love or hate a brand Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique, Zaltman & Coulter (1995): reveal consumers’ thinking and behaving by the use of metaphors
Interviews based on a topic and on an interview guide + Collect collages
Have a deeper understanding of brand love and brand hate, and make a link between the causes, the emotions: Mental map The mental maps Brand love mental map Brand hate mental map What? Why? 3.3 The sample design Who? Heterogeneous sample
Between 20 and 26 years old
60% of Master students
70% of Female respondents 47 questionnaires
10 interviews using the ZMET Future buyers, but already consumers
No limits in terms of industry, brand or nationality: real situations of love and hate No limits of definable variables
Respondents have the opportunity to express their emotions by sharing their experiences, and by the use of metaphors
In depth research of the phenomenon, with the possibility to discover new aspects Key words analysis of a total of 17 787 words
62 brands mentioned as loved (Apple, Zara, Nivea...)
50 brands mentioned as hated ( Guess, Jennyfer, Apple...)
44 emotions related to brand love were mentioned (happy, loyal, confident...)
47 emotions related to brand hate were mentioned (disappointed, angry, annoyed...) Main themes Consumer's perception Consumer's expectation
Consumer's requirement Brand design Brand image Essence of the product Price of the product The experience Ethics Innovative brands Interviews lasted between 50 min and 1h15 min
Analysis of a total of 36 316 words
118 brands were mentioned as loved (Apple, Tommy Hilfiger, Coca-Cola...)
61 brands were mentioned as hated ( Lidl, Apple, Burberry...)
38 emotions related to brand love were mentioned (happy, good, comfortable...)
37 emotions related to brand hate were mentioned (annoyed, disappointed, bored...) The mental map consists of determining of all the important constructs, and then realizing a map connecting all of them. 5.2 Theoretical and Managerial implications 5.3 Limitations and further researches Basic emotions Great emotions « I've never been interested in buying them, I just don't like how they look » Bulgarian Master Girl, about Crocs
« The natural material used and the style of clothes are highly linked with my fashion's view. When i wear these clothes i feel more self-confidence » French Master Girl about Kookai « I do not like this brand because it appears cheap. The products do not look attractive and the packaging is poor. Therefore, you think you consume a product which has not a good quality» German Master Boy about Leader Price
« For me it is important that my personality is expressed by a product, not only my values » German Master Girl « I grew up with this product, and the fact that it hasn’t changed keeps my trust about it » French Master Girl, about Nutella
« It sounds American, and once again it shows the image of a girl from American series, silly and platinum blonde. » French Master Girl, about Jennyfer « Since I cannot afford to buy the brand, every day I see Louis Vuitton bags and other products, I feel like being excluded. The brand really shows me that there exists an upper class which I do not belong to and perhaps never will » German Bachelor Girl, about Louis Vuitton « The brand I love makes me feel like a princess, in a dream, going in the paradise » French Bachelor Girl « I hated this brand because for me, they didn't care about people health, they were only thinking of making money, no matter the quality of their product » French Master Girl about Asics "Blackberry doesnt update any applications to keep in track with technology. It never renews itself. I'm very disappointed with the handset and I wouldn't recommend it to anyone." French Master girl 57 European respondents, between 20 and 26 years old Emotions related to brand love: happy (n=16), good (n=15), loyal (n=9) and comfortable (n=6) Emotions related to brand hate: disappointed (n=30), annoyed (n=12), angry (n=7) and uncomfortable (n=6). Common basic emotions’ list : anger, sadness, fear and joy (Johnson-Laird & Oatle, 1989 ; Ortony & Turner, 1990).
= specific facial expression + a special type of physiological response
9 characteristics by Paul Ekman (1992), such as the universality of the emotional cues or the similarity between the Human and Primate's expressions
Izard (1977), Schwartz & Shaver (1987) : surprise, love, disdain Love, hate, friendship : great emotions (Cosnier, 2006): long lasting Love is characterized by a privileged and exclusive investment and by the idealization of the object (Hartfield & Specher, 1986). Hate consists of anger-fear, repulsion and disgust, and devaluation-diminution (Sternberg, 2005) Emotions are said to be central to the actions of consumers and managers (Bagozzi, Gopinat and Nyer, 1999). Brand relationship Brand love Brand hate Brand love is the degree of passionate emotional attachment that consumer has for a particular trade name (Carroll and Ahuvia, 2006).
Up to 11 dimensions of brand love (Albert, Merunka and Valette-Florence, 2008): passion, self congruity, dreams, a long duration relationship, memories, pleasure, attraction, trust, beauty, uniqueness and willingness to state this love Brand revenge: Take an action in return for an injury or offense. It occurs when the contrariety leads to a serious and irreversible injury (Feather, 1996; Mitchell, 1982) Brand avoidance: consumers decide to avoid brands which do not correspond to their desire or the way they perceive themselves (Hogg and Banister, 2001) Brand detachment: reaching to remove all the memories related to this brand, in order to maintain an emotional distance. Limitations Further researches Student sample
Qualitative research, no determined correlation
Short period of time Wider sample but limit to a brand, a nationality or an industry
Determine if differences between genders and ages
Determine correlations between specific variables Managerial implications 7 dimensions of brand love (Albert, Merunka & Valette-Florence,2008) : memories, uniqueness, dream, duration, pleasure, idealization and intimacy. We would add: loyalty (Sarkar, 2011) and trust (Thomson, McInnis & Park, 2005) Theoretical implications Importance of creating a positive relationship as soon as possible + importance of the experience
Identify reasons of love and hate
Stimulate brand love (school events, special offers, interaction on social networks...)
Manage brand hate (innovation, improve hated aspects, develop positive advertisement...) A total of 180 brands were mentioned as loved
A total of 111 brands were mentioned as hated Main reasons for brand love: familiarity, quality, good experience, good design Main reasons for brand hate: bad image, ethics, bad quality, bad experience, don't meet values Develop brand hate dimensions: anger, disappointment, annoyance, lack of comfort and boredom.