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A Comparison of British North America Mid-Century and Ontario and Quebec of Today

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Gina Pulsinelli

on 6 March 2015

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Transcript of A Comparison of British North America Mid-Century and Ontario and Quebec of Today

This presentation will examine a series of 7 questions about life in British North America Mid-Century , compared and contrasted to Ontario and Quebec of present day. The following questions will be considered :

1. How large was the population ?

2. Was the population as diverse as it is today?

3. Was immigration an important factor?

4. What kind of work did people do?

5. How much did people earn?

6. How much did goods cost?

7. What characteristics made good immigrants to the Canadas in 1850?
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A Comparison of British North America at Mid-Century and Ontario and Quebec of Today.
In 1851, Canada West was what today is known as Ontario where as Canada East was present day Quebec.
1. How Large Was the Population ?
: the total number of people inhabiting a country, city, district or area.
In 1851, the population of Canada East and Canada West was smaller and more rural than today.

In 1851, Canada West had a larger population than Canada East.

In 1851, the population of Canada West was greater than the population of Canada East . Today, like in 1851, Ontario has a larger population than Quebec.

Both Ontario and Quebec are the 2 provinces in Canada with the largest populations.
In 2014, the population for Ontario was 13,678,700 while Quebec's population was 8,214,700.

By using Ontario and Quebec's population in 2014, it can be calculated that Ontario's population has increased 14.4 times from 1851 where as Quebec's population has increased 9.2 times since 1851.

By comparing the population of Ontario and Quebec from 2010-2014 it can also be noted both provinces experienced a slight increase in population each year.

Ontario and Quebec's Population in Present Day
2. Was the Population as Diverse as It Is Today ?
Visible Minority
: defined by today's Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.''

In 1851, the population was less diverse with only 0.8% of Visible Minorities in the Canadas.
Visible Minorities in Ontario Today

Today, Ontario's population is highly diverse in comparison to 1851. In 2011, the 3 largest visible minority groups were South Asian, Chinese and Black. The combined percentage of these 3 groups was 65.1% which accounted for close to nearly two thirds of visible minorities in the province.
The share of visible minority in the population of Canada increased from 2006 to 2011.

In 2011, 3,279,565 of the people who live in Ontario identified themselves as belonging to a visible minority, with 31% of them being born in Canada while 69% of them were born outside of Canada. These people made up 25.9% of Ontario's total population representing more than half of Canada's total visible minority.

The province of Quebec has a smaller number of visible minority groups than Ontario. In 2011, Quebec consisted of 87.2% white, 11% visible minority groups and 1.4% Aboriginal.

Quebec's visible minority groups include:
Black: 3.2%
Arab: 2.2%
Latin America: 1.5%
South Asian: 1.1%
Chinese: 1.1%
Southeast Asian: 0.9%
Fillipino: 0.4%
West Asian: 0.3%
Korean: 0.1%
Japenese: 0.1%

In Ontario and Quebec the majority of visible minorities live in large urban centres like Toronto and Montreal.
4. What Kind of Work Did People Do?
In 1851, there was not a great demand for skilled work so most people worked as farmers (39.1%) or as labourers (35.9%) These types of occupations did not require them to have an education.
Employment in Ontario and Quebec
Today, in Ontario and Quebec employment can be categorized into the Goods-producing sector and the Services-producing sector.

In both Ontario and Quebec most jobs are in the Service-producing sector with an emphasis on:
health care and social assistance
professional, scientific and technical services
These occupations are service driven and require a higher level of education unlike the kind of work people did in 1851.

5. How Much Did People Earn?
In 1851, people were not as educated as people are today and there was little demand for skilled work. Given that the majority of people were farmers or labourers meant that wages paid to them were low.

In 1851, women had it worse than men as they were prohibited from all professions with the exception of teaching and even then, women were paid considerably less than men performing the same job.
: defined as monetary compensation paid by an employer to an employee in exchange for work done on a hourly, daily or weekly basis.
Average Daily Wages for Selected Occupations,
Canada East, October 1851
Today in Ontario and Quebec
Today, people living in Ontario and Quebec are more educated than people in the Canadas in 1851. The demand for skilled work is higher and therefore peoples' wages are higher.

In Ontario, as of June 1st, 2014, the minumun wage is $11.00/hr.

In the province of Quebec, as of May 1st, 2014, the minumun wage is $10.35/hr
The Average Weekly Earnings By Province Table shows that people are clearly earning more today than in 1851. People in Ontario are earning more than people in Quebec but both provinces show an increase in earnings each year from 2009-2013.
Women in Ontario
Although women in 1851 were limited to teaching, women today in 2015 are able to pursue any profession they want.

Today women are doctors, judges, police officers and much more.
Women today are being paid more than women in 1851. However, the reality for women today, like women in 1851, is that women are still being paid less than men.
6. How Much Did Goods Cost?
In 1851, the prices of goods were low but because people earned less it made it difficult for them to purchase goods.
Average Retail Prices, Canada East, October 1851
Today, people in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec are earning more than people in the Canadas in 1851 but the prices of goods have also increased.
Average Retail Prices for Food, Statistics Canada
From the Statistics Canada Average Retail Prices for Food table we can determine that Canadians are significantly paying more for goods in comparison to 1851 yet the quantity of goods is less (with the exception of eggs).
Consumer Price Index

: a tool that the government uses to measure the changes in price levels of consumer goods and services purchased by a household.
According to the Cosumer Price Index Tables, the CPI for all-items (like food, shelter and transportation etc) increased each year from 2010-2014 in Ontario where as for Quebec, the majority of CPI for all-items increased from 2010-2014 with the exception of Clothing and Footwear.
3.Was Immigration an Important Factor?
to leave a country and go to another country and live there permanently.

: to leave a person's native country and go to another country to live.

Between 1851-1861 many people immigrated to the Canadas because of free or inexpensive land. They tried to farm the land but because they had no experience or skill to do so, they had difficulties. For this reason, they emigrated to the developing cities of the United States for better opportunities.

Immigration in Ontario and Quebec
The following table shows that in 2012 there were 257, 515 people who immigrated to Canada and 38% of them settled in Ontario while 21.5% settled in Quebec. These two provinces had the highest rates of immigration. Both provinces each had more immigrants in 2012 than the Canadas had in one year (out of ten) in 1851.
7. What Characteristics Made Good Immigrants to the Canadas in 1850?
In the 1850s, immigrants had to be very hardworking because settling in the Canadas required a lot of manual labor.
What is required today?

Today, the process of immigrating to Canada and settling in either Ontario or Quebec is more lengthy and selective then it was in the 1850s. Immigration requirements include:

having skills and work experience
meeting the required levels of English or French
providing proof that you can be self-employed in Canada if you apply as a self -employed person
passing security checks
having money to support yourself in Ontario or Quebec
satisfying medical exams
having family sponsorship

Experiment Time

Canadian History 7, H 179
Canadian History 7, H 179
Canadian History 7, H 178
Canadian History 7, H 180
Canadian History 7, H 180

Canadian History 7, H 181
Gina Pulsinelli
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