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American History, Chapter 5

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Jordan Hardee

on 29 August 2015

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Transcript of American History, Chapter 5

American History
Chapter 5, 'The Young Republic"

1825;
Erie Canal
- connected Lake Erie with Hudson River
Agriculture
Am leading eco. commodities
(1)Native Americans
(2)Nat'l Bank
Social Reform
Educational Reform
The Women's Movement
The Abolitionist Movement
A Revolution in Transportation
Roads and Turnpikes
1806;
National Road
- only great US govt funded transportation project of its kind
Turnpikes
- road where toll must be paid in order to cross
Steamboats
Rivers provided more efficient/ cheaper travel
1807;
Clermont
steamboat makes debut
The Railroad
The "
Iron Horse
"
Tom Thumb
facilitated travel, nat'l expansion, commerce
Pivotal role in the Civil War
Industrialization Sweeps the North
Industrial Revolution
, early 1800's; modernization/ tech. innovation
from
craftsmans to machine-labor
home store front to factories
local trade to national/ international trade
A New System of Production
Eli Whitney
;
Interchangeable Parts
- standard components; basis of mass production
Mass production of goods made them cheaper/ more accessible
Factory System
- power machinery, interchangeable parts, division of labor
Advances in Communication
1832;
Samuel Morse
, perfects telegraphy/ invents Morse code - system for sending messages
Urban Growth and Immigration
Mass migration of people from rural areas to urban areas
1815-1860 - 5 mil immigrants arrived in America
nativism
- American hostility towards immigrants
Workers Begin to Organize
1860; 1.3 mil factory works
Form labor unions (1) higher wages (2) shorter work days
strikes
- refusal to work
The Continuing Importance of Agriculture
late 1800's;
farming
employed more ppl/ source of most wealth
1793; Eli Whitney invents the
cotton gin
quickly/ efficiently removed seed from cotton
made cotton
the
most important cash crop in the South/ most profitable export/ perpetuates ag. eco driven by slave labor
The Land of Cotton
Enslaved and Free African Americans
high demand for cotton = high demand for slave labor
slaves
37%
of total S. pop
6%
of white S. pop slaveholders
Field Workers
Two slave labor systems -
(1)
task system
- complete daily assigned task, off
(2)
gang system
- work set amt of hours
driver
- ensured tasks completed; often a slave
MAJOR TURNING POINT IN HISTORY
Move from agrarian to urban lifestyle
Cotton accounted for
2/3
of Am exports
Section 2, "The Age of Jackson"
post-1825; resurgence of
sectionalism
Missouri Compromise
1819; Union comprises:
N - slavery morally wrong
S - feared N outlawing slavery
admits Mo. as a slave state and Me. as a free state
drew
36°30'
line, restricting slavery north of line
A Disputed Election
Election of 1824, Republican
favorite sons
- men who were politically popular/ supported in home state
John Q. Adams
elected president
A Return to Two Parties
Corrupt bargain
- an illegitimate agreement between politicians
Democratic-Republicans
= Jacksonians
National Republicans
= Adams followers
A New Era in Politics
states expand voting rights
property qualifications lowered/ eliminated
support Declaration ideas
growing urban tax-paying pop. who owned no property
Jackson Becomes "the Peoples President"
Election of 1828
mudslinging
- attacking candidate's character
Jackson wins presidency
attempts to make govt more inclusive
uses the
spoils system
- appointing political supporters to office
caucus
replaced with nat'l nominating convention
Nullification Crisis
South eco. weakening
Tariff of 1828
- raised custom duties on import goods from 30% to 50%
Tariff of Abominations
secede
- withdraw
Nullification Crisis
1828;
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
V.P., John C. Calhoun
Nullification
valid because
the federal govt was created by the states
Response
"Liberty first and Union afterward."
- Robert Y. Hayne
"Liberty and Union, now and forever; one and inseparable."
- Daniel Webster
1830; Senate debate
tariffs example of tyranny of
majority rule
advocates
conventions
created to debate constitutionality of federal laws
Response
24 Nov 1832
; Convention in Columbia, SC
declare tariffs "unconstitutional" and "null in void"
Fed govt plan to invade Charleston
Calhoun
initiates a compromise - gradually reduce tariff, SC repeals n.
Other Domestic Matters
Indian Removal Act
- negotiate Indian removal from their homeland to live on fed govt property
Trail of Tears
Vetoes
charter of 2nd Nat'l Bank, ending the Nat'l Bank
A New Party Emerges
Whigs
- J. opponents, strong fed govt
Democrats
- limited fed govt
1836;
Martin Van Buren
elected president
Panic of 1837
- business failed, farmers lost property
"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
1840;
William Henry Harrison
elected president
John Tyler, V.P.
Section 3, "The Reform Spirit"
Social Reform
People strove to separate themselves from corrupt society and form
utopias
- ideal society
communal living, no private property
The Temperance Movement
Alcohol
considered most evil vice
Temperance
- moderation in the consumption
American Temperance Union
formed, pushed abstaining from the consumption and production of alcohol
Educational Reform
Early 1800's, ppl push states to support public schools -
new tech = demand for educated workers
expansion of voting rights
educated pop. crucial to democracy
Horace Man Fights for Public Schooling
Horace Mann
- leader in edu mvmt
normal schools
- schools for teachers
1850's; public schools prevalent in northeast
Rural areas gradually acquired public schools
because children were needed as a labor source
Women's Education
Typical female curriculum - cooking/ etiquette
1837; first higher education institution for women,
Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
in MA
The Women's Movement
Industrial Revolution the eco. roles of men and women
men - public sphere
women - private sphere
Women perceived as the
moral compass
of the family
1848; Lucretia Mott/ Elizabeth Cady Stannton - organized
Seneca Falls Convention
marked beginning of an organized woman's movement
The Abolitionist Movement
abolition
- abolishing slavery
propels nation toward the Civil War
Rel. argument - slavery a sin
Dec. 1816;
American Colonization Society
(ACS) - antislavery group; encouraged Africans to resettle in Africa
20k Africans relocated to Liberia
The New Abolitionists
1833; American Antislavery Society founded
Woman's Rights Advocates supported abolition movement
SC sisters -
Sarah, Angelina Grimke
moved north to support movement
Fredrick Douglas, prominent African American leader against slavery
Northern Views
Attitude toward slavery support to indifference
feared what emancipation of slaves would bring:

African American migration to the north
destruction to southern eco.
war
Laws passed forbidding slave recapture
Southern Response
slavery vital to southern culture
forbid abolitionist literature
Section 4, "Manifest Destiny"
Manifest Destiny
- 19th century ideal that the US should stretch from coast to coast
fueled western expansion
Squatters
- first pioneers, didn't own land
Farmers in the Midwest
Pre-emption Act
- permitted squatters to purchase land before it went up for public sale
The Push to the Pacific
Mexican govt encourage Am. to settle
Mexican govt suspicious of Am. settlers'
nat'l loyalties
The Trails West
Oregon Trail
- route used during the US westward migrations staring at the Missouri River and ending in Oregon
Crossing the Great Plains
1851;
Treaty of Fort Laramie
- defined Native American territory boundaries "forever"
Americans Settle in Texas
Tejanos
- Sp. speaking inhabitants of the southern region of Texas in early 19th century
recruit foreigners to settle in the area
become Mexican citizens
convert to R. Catholicism
obey Mexican law
empresarios
- agents who contracted with the Mexican govt to recruit settlers in exchange for land grants
1830; Mexican govt closes Texas borders
Texas fights for Independence
1832; convention requesting Mexican govt to reopen T. borders
1833; convention suggesting T. separate from Mexico
3 January 1834;
Austin arrested for treason
President
Antonia Lopez de Santa Anna
declares himself dictator
Am. settlers in Texas organize an army
Oct. 1835; Gonzales, Am settlers ordered to relinquish their arms
6 March 1836
; The Alamo, battle at Sp. mission
Texas govt declares independence
united the Texans behind their new country
Texas Fights for Independence
The Battle at San Jacinto
Texan general
Sam Houston
lays waste to Santa Anna's forces
compels Santa Anna to sign a treaty recognizing the republic's independence
annexation
- absorption
Texas and Oregon Enter the Union
The Election of 1844;
James K. Polk
platform -
annex Texas, Oregon, and purchase California
December 1845 -
Texas
joins the Union
War with Mexico
Mexico breaks relations with the US
countries clash over border disputes
Polk pins Mexico as the "aggressor"
13 May 1846; war declared
The Fighting Begins
June 1846; California declares independence
"
Bear Flag Republic
"
US captures Mexico City
Treaty of Gualdape Hidalgo
US acquires California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Mexico, Arizona, and Wyoming
Full transcript