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The User Experience

The way people feel about it and their pleasure and satisfaction when using it, looking at it, holding it, and opening o

Robert Griffin

on 9 November 2015

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Transcript of The User Experience

The User Experience
9. Key Points
Open and read the .pdf Chapter5.1 in my folder it is a case study. Are there any features of this study that could apply to your CA?

Use the McCarthy and Wright (2004) framework to think about your assignment idea.

Are there ways that you can use to motivate and change behaviour?
McCarthy and Wright (2004) framework of the user experience in terms of how it is ‘felt’ by the user
Recognises that defining an Experience is very difficult.
Made up of 4 core threads
Sensual (thrill, fear, pain), similar to Visceral level in Norman.
emotional (sorrow, anger, joy)
Compositional (what is going on here?)
spatio-temporal (is time passing quickly or do you feel you are moving quickly?)
8.3 Technology as Experience
Should we, therefore, create products that adapt according to people’s different emotional states?
When people are feeling angry should an interface be more attentive and informative than when they are happy?
Is Norman right?
designers “can get away with more” for products intended to be used during leisure time than those designed for serious tasks
We have looked at some examples of how interaction may generate emotional responses.
Can we build this into our design approaches?
For instance, Mayhew’s model on which CA1 was based gives us a framework for designing Usable applications...
... Is there a similar framework to help us Design for Emotional Response?
8.Design for Emotional Response
Is the use of novel forms of interactive technologies (e.g., the combination of sensors and dynamically updated information) that monitor, nag, or send personalized messages intermittently to a person more effective at changing a person’s behavior than non-interactive methods, such as the placement of warning signs, labels, or ads in prominent positions?
How effective?
Interactive computing systems deliberately designed to change people’s attitudes and behaviors (Fogg, 2003)
A diversity of techniques now used to change what they do or think
Pop-up ads, warning messages, reminders, prompts, personalized messages, recommendations, Amazon 1-click
6. Persuasive Technologies

When an application doesn’t work properly or crashes
When a system doesn’t do what the user wants it to do
When a user’s expectations are not met
When a system does not provide sufficient information to enable the user to know what to do
When error messages pop up that are vague, obtuse or condemning
When the appearance of an interface is garish, noisy, gimmicky or patronizing
When a system requires users to carry out too many steps to perform a task, only to discover a mistake was made earlier and they need to start all over again
User frustration

E.g. User Frustration
5.Negative Emotions
Why was Clippy disliked by so many?
Was it annoying, distracting, patronising or other?
What sort of user liked Clippy?

Agents in the guise of pets (e.g. bunny, dog) were included to talk to the user
Make users feel more at ease and comfortable
4.Friendly interfaces
The Power of Data
Marcus (1992) proposed interfaces for different user groups
Left dialog box was designed for people who “prefer a more detailed presentation, curvilinear shapes and the absence of some of the more brutal terms ... favored by male software engineers.”
Right dialog box was designed for those who who like “suave prose, a restrained treatment of information density, and a classical approach to font selection”

Teasley et al (1994) found this not to be true
the European dialog box was preferred by all and was considered most appropriate for all users round dialog box was strongly disliked by everyone
Marcus and Teasley study
What gets a good response?
High Level aims for a system
Effective to use
Efficient to use
Safe to use
Have good utility
Easy to learn
Easy to remember how to use
Usability goals
1. Thoughts on CA!
2. The User Experience
3. Affective aspects
4. Friendly interfaces
5. Negative Emotions
6. Persuasive Technologies
7. A Systematic Model
8. Design for Emotional Response
9. Key Points
Affective aspects
Jordon (2000) based on Tiger’s (1992) framework of pleasure
Focuses on the pleasurable aspects of our interactions with products
(i) physio-pleasure: touch,taste,smell e.g. A sleak phone
(ii) socio-pleasure: interaction with others
(iii) psycho-pleasure: emotional reactions e.g. A satisfying e-commerce event (similar to Norman’s Behavioural level)
(iv) ideo-pleasure: value-based reactions (similar to Norman’s Reflective level)
Means of framing a designer’s thinking about pleasure, highlighting that there are different kinds
8.2 Pleasure model
Our emotional state changes how we think
when frightened or angry we focus narrowly and body responds by tensing muscles and sweating
more likely to be less tolerant
when happy we are less focused and the body relaxes
more likely to overlook minor problems and be more creative
Claims from model
Changing bad habits and improving well being
Designed to motivate children into being more physically active on a consistent basis
The owner of the digital pet that ‘lives’ in the device is required to walk, run, or jump
If owner does not exercise the virtual pet becomes unhappy and eventually dies
Nintendo’s Pocket Pikachu
Users have in the past created a range of emoticons - compensate for lack of expressiveness in text communication:
Happy :)
Sad :<
Sick :X
Mad >:
Very angry >:-(
Graphic versions now exist.

Also use of icons and shorthand in texting and instant messaging has emotional connotations, e.g.
User-created expressiveness
Colour, icons, emoticons, sounds, graphical elements and animations are used to make the ‘look and feel’ of an interface appealing

In turn this can affect the usability of an interface
People are prepared to put up with certain aspects of an interface (e.g. slow download rate) if the end result is appealing and aesthetic
Early Attempts
HCI has traditionally been about designing efficient and effective systems

Now more about how to design interactive systems that make people respond in certain ways
e.g. to be happy, to be trusting, to learn, to be motivated
Note that much research concerned with designing systems to show emotions per se. Not our concern here.
3. Affective aspects
Based on slide from www.id-book.com
UX Goals – Undesirable
Based on slide from www.id-book.com
UX Goals – Desirable
How a product behaves and is used by people in the real world
the way people feel about it and their pleasure and satisfaction when using it, looking at it, holding it, and opening or closing it
“every product that is used by someone has a user experience: newspapers, ketchup bottles, reclining armchairs, cardigan sweaters.” (Garrett, 2003)
Cannot design a user experience, only design for a user experience
2. The User Experience
Norman, Ortony and Revelle (2004) model of emotion
8.1 Emotional design model
As our use of social media increases, so does the amount of information we share about our activities, our relationships and ourselves. Just ten years ago, marketers had to bribe customers to share a fraction of the rich data we have access to today.

But data sitting in silos doesn’t help anyone. least of all the customer. Turning the data into useful experiences is how marketers unlock the power of data.

Since most people have at least one social profile, people are willing to give marketers access to social data in exchange for a personalised experience across the sites they frequent.
The Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab
creates insight into how computing products — from websites to mobile phone software — can be designed to change what people believe and what they do.
User Experience is concerned with how interactive systems make people respond in emotional ways

Well-designed interfaces can elicit good feelings in users

Expressive interfaces can provide reassuring feedback

Badly designed interfaces make people angry and frustrated

No perfect model to aid Designers but

Models of affect provide a way of conceptualizing emotional and pleasurable aspects of interaction design
Attributing human-like qualities to inanimate objects
(e.g. cars, computers)
• Well known phenomenon in advertising
– Dancing butter, drinks, breakfast cereals
• Much exploited in human-computer interaction
– Make user experience more enjoyable, more motivating,
make people feel at ease, reduce anxiety
Evidence to support anthropomorphism
Reeves and Naas (1996) found that computers that flatter and praise users in education
software programs -> positive impact on them“Your question makes an important and useful distinction. Great job!”

• Students were more willing to continue with exercises with this kind of feedback
Criticism of anthropomorphism
Deceptive, make people feel anxious, inferior or stupid• People tend not to like screen characters that wave their fingers at the user & say:
– Now Chris, that’s not right. You can do better than that.Try again.”
• Many prefer the more impersonal:
– “Incorrect. Try again.”
• Studies have shown that personalized feedback is
considered to be less honest and makes users feel less
responsible for their actions (e.g. Quintanar, 1982)
Go to Ikea.com
Try out the virtual assistant.
Is this something you would use?
Other virtual assistants
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