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Principal Applications of Genetics

Biology 2 class

Jose Popoff

on 4 October 2013

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Transcript of Principal Applications of Genetics

Principal Applications of Genetics
But first, here´s how our dynamic will work:
Change seats with someone.
Share a thought with someone.
Send a text, ping, msn or write a little note.
Stand up and hop three times.
Give your neighbor a smile.
Give someone a hug and
tell how special they are.
Genetic Improvement
Objective: Develop hybrids resilient to plagues and disease.
It is also required for crops to withstand adverse weather conditions.
To reduce dependance of crops to fertilizers.
Production of multiple copies of genetically identical
individuals, obtained from a single parent, a cell or a
group of cells.
Artificial Insemination
Technique employed in animals to obtain better breeds.
Sperm cells from the stallion are transferred to the female.
In-vitro Fertilization
What is invitro fertilization
It is an assissted reproduction method for infertile couples.
In vitro fertilization consists of the extraction of the ovules and
their fertilization in a lab.
Genetic Engineering
Application of Techniques used by genetic engineering
has allowed an improvement in human being´s life
Benefits of Genetic Engineering
For alimentation:
Before the perfection of G.E. techniques a great amount of fruit was discarded due to
inadecuate flavor.
An artificial gene has been created for the
creation of a new type of tomato.
Medicine production
Before, diabetes patients would suffer due to lack of insuline.
Today, large scale production of insuline is possible.
In the past, oil spills would damage great amounts of marine zones.
Today, petroleum-fed bacteria have been obtained.
Benefits of Genetic Investigation
-Molecular medicine
-Microbian genomics
Risk assessments
DNA identification
Agriculture and bioprocessing
Methodology of Genetic Studies
Experimental breeding
Most widely used organisms are:
Lab rat is a rodent from the species Mus musculus.
Lab mice should be purebred (homozygous).
Characteristics that have made of the laboratory mouse
the most used biological and biomedical model for
scientific investigation:
Ease of management.
Appropriate size for breeding and manipulating.
No high-maintenance
Their immune system
is similar to ours.
They produce a high
amount of young.
Gestation period is brief.
Females produce a great amount of eggs
which are very resilient when fertilized.
Since they are placentary mammals (eutheria), like humans, their genome is similar to ours.
Characteristics that make microbes useful
They are small, therefore, do not consume much resources.
Generation time is rather short.
Cells may live independent from
other cells.
Eukaryotes reproduce by mitotic division.
Prokaryotes by binary fission.
They may remain frozen for long periods of time
Drosophila is a highly used genus by investigators.
Small size.
Very low maintenance.
They are not susceptible to mutations.
Also used:
Genealogy studies
Sometimes we cannot perform controlled crossings.
This is the case of human genetics.
Genealogy analysis.
What is the purpose of a cervical
screening or Pap test?
What is screening?
Technique consisting of the observation of cells through the
Cervical screening consists on examining ,
to the microscope, cells obtained from the
cervix and vagina.
It is known as Papanicolau test in honor of
George Papanicolau who described it in 1943.
When must a woman take her first
pap test?
A woman must take a full gyn test, including
vaginal screening when she becomes
sexually active.
How is a screening performed?
What happens if an anomaly is found?
What is a colposcopy?
Biochemical Genetics
The substances that make up food allow the biological
equilibrium of the different cellular structures of
human organism.
The substances incorporated into our diet must be metabolized
to form essential compounds for the organism.
This is done thanks to enzymes.
What is the HLA system?
It's the name for human's major histocompatibility complex.
What is albinism?
A genetic anomaly in which there is a flaw in the
production of melanin.
What is melanin?
Melanin is only produced by two types of cell:
Retinal cells
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