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Copy of Macromolecules - Carbon Compounds

A brief summary of the Macromolecules unit of the South Australian SACE Biology course
by

Lauren Greenbaum

on 8 July 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Macromolecules - Carbon Compounds

Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides are used for structural purposes.
Consist of
CHO backbone
Carbohydrates made up of monomers
called monosaccharides (eg glucose)
Monomers can join together
to form disaccharides (eg sucrose)
Polysaccharides are a chain of monomers
generally used for storage of energy.
Cellulose (fibre)
- cell wall in plants
Chitin
- hard outer covering in insects.
For example:
starch (in plants)
glycogen (in animals)
This is glucose
Space fill model
This is glucose
Flat model
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
C - Carbon - Black
H - Hydrogen - White
O - Oxygen - Red
Mono - single
Saccaride - sugar
+
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
(Di - two)
+
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
(Poly - many)
+
Monosaccharide
+
Monosaccharide
Summary:
C, H, O atoms
monomers (monosacchrides)
add monomers together
forms disacchrides, polysaccarides
used for energy and cell structures
Lipids
Consist of
CHO backbone
This is a lipid
Space fill model
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
C - Carbon - Grey
H - Hydrogen - Red
O - Oxygen - Yellow
Water attracting head
Water repelling tails
Major Types of Lipids
Saturated Fats
(from animals)
Unsaturated Oils
(from plants)
Phospholipids
(Cell membranes)
Waxes
Plant leaf cuticles
Insect outer layer
Steroids
cholesterol
Functions of lipids
Part of
cell membrane
Important in
signalling
Insulation of
whole organism
Energy storage
Summary
CHO structure
4 main types
Used for storage, Protection and signalling
Nucleic Acids
DNA
Discovered in 1953
Able to copy itself (self-replicate) and pass information on to daughter cells
Made up of numerous nucleotides
Nucleotide made up of a sugar (ribose), a phosphate group and a base
One Nucleotide
Consist of
CHON backbone
C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
N - Nitrogen
Thymine
Carbon- Black
Hydrogen - White
Oxygen - Red
Nitrogen - Blue
Other nucleic acids
mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
Genes found
along chromsomes

Genes are made
of DNA

Proteins
Consist of CHONS
(and some other atoms)

C - Carbon
H - Hydrogen
O - Oxygen
N - Nitrogen
S - Sulphur
Amino acid
Cytoseine
Insulin
Protein made up of
a string of amino acids
Protein function
Enzymes
Receptors
Antibodies
Movement
http://www.teachersdomain.org/asset/drey07_vid_cortisone/
Full transcript