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Psyc 4650: Food Addictions

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Julia Rose

on 12 June 2013

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Transcript of Psyc 4650: Food Addictions

The Habit We Can't Live Without
Food Addictions
A. Characterized by periods of uncontrolled, impulsive, or continuous eating beyond the point of feeling comfortably full. While there is no purging, there may be sporadic fasts or repetitive diets and often feelings of shame or self-hatred after a binge. People who overeat compulsively may struggle with anxiety, depression, and loneliness. which can contribute to their unhealthy episodes of binge eating.
B. Body weight may vary from normal to mild, moderate or severe obesity.
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence
Yale Food Addiction Spectrum
Compulsive Overeating/Binge Eating
How Do We Define Food Addiction?
1. Tolerance
2. Withdrawal
3. Taking substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended
4. Persistent desire or unsuccessful effort to cut down or control substance use
5. Spending a great deal of time in activities necessary to obtain or use the substance or to recover from its effects
6. Giving up social, occupational, or recreational activities because of substance use
7. Continuing the substance use with the knowledge that it is causing or exacerbating a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem
3 C's : Loss of Control, Compulsive Use, Continued Use Despite Adverse Consequences
How do we define Food Addiction?
Important factors in food addiction
Food Cravings
Unprocessed/Natural food choices
Some sugars/flours/fats are naturally existing and are often paired with minerals, vitamins, fiber and water. Problems arise when these sugars/flours are extracted and concentrated
Key Areas
Binge-eating behaviour
Environmental Cues
Food Cravings
Neurological Symptoms
What foods are addictive?
Processed foods that contain high concentrations of refined sugars, fats, salts, carbohydrates and caffiene
Palatable foods are foods that are rich in sugar and/or rich in fat content
Food Cravings
Specific, intense desire for a certain food
Play a role in binge-eating behaviour
Associated with more frequent snacking
Neurologically, the same brain areas are activated in food cravings, that are seen to be active in drug craving
Environmental cues can induce food cravings - showing food cues activates the amygdala (responsible for processing and storing emotions and memories)
Intermittent reward scheduling
Individual differences
"Nutritional deprivation
is not necessary to
produce food cravings."
Health Risks
How does our environment influence food addiction?
Highly potent rewarding food environment
Sedentary Lifestyle
Refined foods are highly advertised, readily available, and often at a more accessible cost than unrefined foods
Does the accessibility of these foods effect all populations of the community equally?
Dental cavities
Tooth decay
Provides 20% of the calories Canadians consume daily
Varieties of refined sugar - or additives that stimulate the taste of sugar
Analgesic effects - used instead of anesthesia in newborns
Implications in the reward system
Binge-eating behaviour and compulsive eating behaviour has been modelled in rats
Crystalline mineral, (NaCl)
Essential for life, found in many different sorts of foods ( need around 180mg-500mg per day )
Refined forms: table salt
Saltiness is a basic human taste
CNS stimulant
Adenosine antagonist, creates higher levels of DA and NE to reduce sleepiness
Caffeine half life is typically from 3.5-6 hrs in adults
Researchers at John Hopkins School of Medicine suggest that ingesting 100mg of caffeine a day can lead to dependence, despite the fact that caffeine dependence is not listed in the DSM-IVCaffeine withdrawal: headache, lethargy, nausea, muscle pain
Foods/drinks containing caffeine: coffee, teas, chocolate, etc
Recap: Parallels to Drug Addiction
Food Addiction
Drug Addiction
Many drugs are commonly derived from natural elements: opium from the poppy plant, cocaine is extracted from cocoa leaves, ethanol from grains or potatoes, nicotine from dried tobacco
6% of our salt intake comes from the salt we add ourselves to food; 94% of our salt intake comes from salt added in processed foods
Target intake is 1500 mg/salt a day – most Canadians ingest 3500 mg/day
High intake of salt is a leading cause of hypertension
We saw how much salt we inadvertently consume, so let's extend the concept. Do you really know how much sugar is in drinks we often consume?
Coffee, tea, energy drinks, soft drinks, everyone has their own choice to get their caffiene fix. Are we aware of how much caffiene is contained in these beverages?
Unrefined Foods
Refined Foods
Children and adolescents spend more than $180 billion per year and influence their parents’ spending for another $200 billion per year
Mixed messages in the media
4 Main Addictive Food Groups
Health Risks
Healthy Living Habits
Tolerance - Needing to eat more to get the same effect
Withdrawal - food cravings
Down-regulation of neurotransmitter receptors from excessive stimulation
Involve pleasure-seeking goals, reward centre stimulation, and habitual and/or problematic behaviour to reach these goals
Polysubstance use - we mix these substances together to get better/more desirable results
Parkinson’s Disease: lower risk of developing Parkinson’s
Gallstones: lower risk of developing gallstones
Improves alertness and physical performance
Increased mood
Decreases sleep quality
High caffeine consumption is linked with infertility/birth defects
High caffeine consumption is linked with miscarriage
Counteracts alcohol
Linked to migraines
Health Statistics
Newfoundland & Labrador
Over 8600 youth in the province are considered overweight or obese according to Body Mass Index Measures
Over 265,000 adults were considered to be overweight or obese according to BMI Measures
Over 99,000 Newfoundlanders have high blood pressure
Over 49,000 Newfoundlanders have diabetes
Over 428,000 youth in the country are considered overweight or obese according to BMI Measures
Over 13,000,000 adults in the country are considered overweight or obese according to BMI Measures
Over 5,000,000 Canadians have high blood pressure
Over 1700000 Canadians have diabetes
The Childhood Obesity Epidemic
It is predicted that today's youth will be the first generation to not outlive their parents
1/4 Canadian children (aged 2-17) are overweight or obese
Influence of environment
Children with a higher BMI will be more susceptible to fast-food advertisements
Psychosocial, Neurological, and Physical problems
Learning poor behavioural habits
Neurological effects:
Childhood Obesity Treatments
Treatment for children under age 7 who have no other major health concerns is aimed towards weight maintenance, allowing them to grow taller to obtain a healthy BMI
Treatment for children over age 7 is generally aimed at weight loss, obtained by a balanced, healthy diet and physical activity
Tips to reduce risk: limit time spent on electronics, emphasize activity over exercise, act as a role model and promote healthy living habits
Controversial - people are reluctant to call food an addiction, and this reflects in the minimal amount of treatment options available
Abstinence from food is not possible - or is it?
Naloxene - short term for restricting food intake
Options typically consist of a variety of 12-Step Programs - Food Addicts and Overeaters Anonymous
Social supports are extremely important due to constant environmental cues, high accessibility of foods, and that abstinence isn't possible
Treatment focuses on food awareness and education: patients learn about healthy eating and living, food selection, portion control, mindful eating
Important to provide a nurturing environment so that people can develop healthy relationships with food
ACORN Food Dependency Recovery Services
Compulsive Overeaters Retreat
Milestones in Recovery
Shades of Hope
Turning Point
Binge-eating behaviour and compulsive eating behaviours develop in rats
Rats that were allowed to continuously feed on high fat/high calorie foods for 23/24 hours per day
Effects: became obese, neurological changes similar to tolerance development
Continued feeding even in presence of electric shock
Food Disconnect / Social implications
Healthy Living Habits
Mindful Eating - Removing the disconnect
Intoxication can occur when more than 300mg of caffeine is consumed (overstimulated nervous system, feelings of anxiety, flushed face, twitching muscles, irregular heart rate, rushed thoughts and speech)
Reduced cerebral blow flow by 30%
Heart disease
High cholesterol
Certain types of cancer
Long term effects include: stroke, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, edema, stomach cancers,
Hypertension - is leading risk factor for death in world
Psychological Effects
: helplessness, depression, desperation
Canadian Community Health Survey (2004)
"They're trying to increase their share of your stomach."
Bruce Bradley
(former Food Industry Executive)
Created as a tool to operationalize the definition of Food Addiction
Questions are representative of criteria specifications for Substance Dependence
Yale Food Addiction Scale
ACORN Self-Assessment
Prominent self-assessment found on intial internet searches for Food Addiction
Resource provided from the Food Addiction Institute
Following Canada’s food guide helps lower the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancers and osteoporosis
Provides adequate nutrition for all age groups
Choose veggies and fruits with little added sugar, fat, salt
Choose food options lower in fat
Select meats with little or no added fat or salt
Watch serving sizes and calorie counts
Eating well in combination with exercise provides better overall health, lowers risk of disease, boosts strength/energy levels
Develop a postive relationship with food and form good habits!
Within your groups discuss which criteria for substance dependence fit with Food Addiction?
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