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Mobile Learning (eng)

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Marcus Specht

on 26 May 2014

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Transcript of Mobile Learning (eng)

Mobile Learning is ...
Functions of Mobiles
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deep learning
free exploration
contextualised support
Great for people on the go.
Anytime, anywhere access to content.
Can enhance interaction between and among students and instructors.
Great for just-in-time training or review of content.
Can enhance student-centered learning.
Can appeal to tech-savvy students because of the media-rich environment.
Support differentiation of student learning needs and personalized learning.
Reduce cultural and communication barriers between faculty and students by using communication channels that students like.
Facilitate collaboration through synchronous and asynchronous communication.
Key Concepts

Technocentric perspective defining mobile learning as: “any educational provision where the sole or dominant technologies are handheld or palmtop devices” (Traxler, 2005)

Mobility of the learner became more and more important in definitions which led to approaches as: “any sort of learning that happens when the learner is not at a fixed, predetermined location, or learning that happens when the learner takes advantage of learning opportunities offered by mobile technologies” (O’Malley et al., 2003)

in a more detailed analysis as by Naismith et al. (2004) new possibilities of mobile learning support have been analysed according to different educational paradigms and learning activities as behaviourist, constructivist, situated, collaborative, informal/lifelong, and support/coordination

recent works and application are often looking at the field of mobile Informal learning.
Literature, References
Anywhere, anytime access can provide multiple cues for comprehension and retention. The richness of authentic situations gives a variety of triggers for different learning needs. These learning needs can either be instantly followed up with the help of mobile technology or in direct conversation with peers. Mobile and ubiquitous technology gets more and more invisible and learning by communication, reflection, and inquiry becomes more important again.
Contextualised Filtering
Context is not abstract
Authenic Environment Less Computer
Always On
Benefits and
May make it easier to cheat.
Could give tech-savvy students an advantage over non-technical students.
Can create a feeling of isolation or of being out-of-the-loop for non-techies.
May require media to be reformatted or offered in multiple formats.
Might render some content outdated because of rapid upgrades—here today, outdated tomorrow.
Could require additional learning curve for non-technical students and faculty.
May be used as a new high-tech package for the same old dull and boring content.
Text messaging holds the potential of instant exchange and update of personal information channels. The underlying model allows new information distribution models like personalized information channels or micro-blogging. Furthermore, nearly every mobile phone used today has SMS messaging capabilities. Successful services are released all over the world with a focus on India, South America, and Africa.
Voice and Audio: mobile phones can do much more than just enabling direct phone calls to another person. You can connect to several persons in an audio conference, you can call in to service for recording and instant publishing of a phone call, you can use voice-based services to navigate in applications, or you can connect to online audio streams or FM Radio networks.
Photos and Videos allow mobile phones to create low-fi content on the spot and distribute contextualized information. A prominent example is the recent release of the iPhone 3GS, which can record videos and submit them to YouTube mobile. In the first 5 days after the release of the device the mobile content uploads to YouTube grew by 40%.
They provide access to information where and when it is needed (anywhere, anytime). Mobile learners can travel to unique locations, physically with or virtually through their mobile devices. As stated previously especially moving between different contexts in that sense triggers new learning needs and those needs can be instantly followed up what also has a variety of consquences on motivational issues and cross topic transfer.
Contexts can provide authentic cultural and environmental cues for understanding the uses of information which may enhance encoding and recall. Within the paradigm of situated learning, the specific learning situation plays a key role during the knowledge construction process. During a situated learning setting, the mental representation of a concept occurs not in an abstract or isolated form but in connection with the social and material context of a specific learning situation.Personalised and
Different patterns of presentation and amounts of information can potentially help learners to retain, retrieve, and transfer information when needed. Well-implemented mobile education can assist in the reduction of cognitive load by filtering available information based on all contextual factors as also the personal history.
What can be better
with Mobiles?

Behaviorism: Quick feedback or reinforcement can be facilitated through mobile devices.
Constructivism: Mobile devices enable immersive experiences such as those provided by simulations or games.
Situated learning: Learners can take mobile devices into authentic learning environments or "context-aware" environments, such as specially equipped museums.
Collaborative learning: Mobile devices provide a handy additional means of communication and a portable means of electronic information gathering and sharing.
Informal/lifelong learning: Mobile devices accompany users in their everyday experiences and become a convenient source of information ormeans of communication that assists with learning.
Support/coordination:Mobile devices provide just-in-time access to learning resources, news, information, planners, address books, calculators, and so forth.
Different Theories highlight aspects of attention, memory, encoding, social and broader context, Effiecinecy of access and other factors ...
Roschelle (2003) differentiates interactive classroom systems, distributed simulations, collaborative data collection. Ally (2009) describes examples of these different approaches and their further developments.
Categories of Mobile Learning Support
De Jong et al (2008) classified mobile learning support on context, content, goal, information flow, and educational paradigm.
Frohberg et al. (2009) did an analysis of more than 1400 papers and defined dimensions for the classification of 102 identified mobile learning systems.
Context, Tools, Previous Knowledge, Control, Communication.
Previous Knowledge
the world as Interface
who ?
StefAan Ternier
Tim de Jong
Marion Gruber
Marco Kalz
Roland Klemke
Fred de Vries
Dirk Borner
Wolfgang Greller
Christian Glahn
Marcus Specht
Mobile Learning Research Group
Some other resources
sensor based filtering, collaboration
iPhone SDK
Ambient Displays
in action and about action
episodic memory
Specht (2009)
Specht, M. (2009). Learning in a Technology Enhanced World: Context in Ubiquitous Learning Support. Inaugural Address. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. http://hdl.handle.net/1820/2034
Voice and Audio
Photos, Videos
Frohberg, D. Göth, C., Schwabe, G. (2009). Mobile Learning Projects a critical analysis of the state of the art. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 307-331, 25,4 download from http://www.ifi.uzh.ch/pax/index.php/index
Prof. Dr. Marcus Specht
Welten Institute, Research Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology
Open Universiteit Nederland
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