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Transcript of Applied Linguistics
Valeria Corvalán Linguistic Paradigms Noam Chomsky : 'language acquisition device' Stephen Krashen’s Applied Linguistics It has many Branches Multilingualism is becoming a social phenomenon governed by the needs of globalization and cultural openness a mechanism which enables an individual to recreate correctly the rules (grammar) and certain other characteristics of language used by speakers around the learner cognitive process, in which there would only
be relative, not categorical, differences between
the two types of language learning. quotes research finding that the earlier children
learn a second language, the better off they are,
in terms of pronunciation Rod Ellis Receptive bilingualism:
those who have the ability to understand a second language, but do not speak it Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is defined as any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked computers is an approach to the study of social interaction, embracing both verbal and non-verbal conduct, in situations of everyday life. Conversation analysis (CA) Pre-sequences
-Turn constructional component
-Turn allocational component
-Turn-taking organization Contrastive linguistics is a practice-oriented linguistic approach that seeks to describe the differences and similarities between a pair of languages Interlingusitics is the study of various aspects of linguistic communication between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their different first languages.
* It is concerned with investigating how ethnic and auxiliary languages (lingua franca) work in such situations and with the possibilities of optimizing interlinguistic communication. Language Disorders Aphasia: it is a disorder that results from damage to the oarts of the brain that contain language. It causes problems with Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing
Chlidhood apraxia of speech (CAD) : kids with CAD have problems saying sounds, syllables and words. Forensic linguistics:
*Forensic linguistics is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics
*The discipline of forensic linguistics is not homogenous; it involves a range of experts and researchers in different areas of the field. * Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.
*Translation studies deal with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of translation. Translation Language pedagogy Methodology Approach, design and procedure Approach, method and technique Structural view treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning (e.g. grammar).
Grammar-translation and audio lingual method Functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as requesting something.
The oral approach / situational language teaching, directed practice Sees language as a vehicle for the creation and maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchanges. This view has been fairly dominant since the 1980s
The direct method, the series method, Communicative language teaching. Language immersion, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response, Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling, Dogme language teaching. Interactive view Proprietary methods
Other Second-language acquisition Is the process by which people learn a second language. Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person's first language Lexicography •Practical lexicography •Theoretical lexicography Language planning Status planning
Acquisition planning Sign Linguistics Sign linguistics is the scientific study of natural sign
language (visual-gestural, non-vocal language primarily
used by deaf people) The origins of modern sign linguistics William C. Stokoe
The key lexical features used for describing a sign are:
• tab (tabula), the location of the sign in the 'signing space';
• dez (designator), the hand configuration used to perform the sign;
• sig (signation), the action that performs the sign. Subsequent study has added to this:
• nmf (non-manual features), including head, shoulder and facial movements and expressions. Stokoe and colleagues developed a sign language transcription system based on this descriptive organisation of lexical form (HamNoSys). ASL (American Sign Language)
and BSL (British Sign Language) Sub-topics in sign linguistics Areas of study:
- focus on the structural organization of the language as a symbolic system (ie, the study of grammar and lexis)
•phonology—the study of sign systems and sign units;
•morphology—the formation and composition of signs;
•syntax—the rules for combining signs into phrases and sentences; and
•semantics—the study of meaning. - concerned with sign language as it is acquired and practiced by people.
• evolutionary sign linguistics—sign language change across historical time;
• historical sign linguistics—sign language in historical periods and places;
• sociolinguistics—the interaction between social structure and sign language variation; • sign language acquisition—the learning of sign language by children and adults;
• pragmatics—the transmission of meaning as a combination of competence and purpose;
• discourse analysis—the structure of sign language conversations; and
• genre—the cultural modes of interacting through sign language, including poetry and storytelling. Corpus sign linguistics is a practice and theory that can cover many, if not all, of the sign linguistic sub-disciplinary interests. Sign (semiotics) Sign linguistics is to be distinguished sharply from sign semiotics, the study of the linguistic sign Arbitrariness and motivation •classifiers—morphological forms, such as handshapes, that refer to 'classes' of things, such as flat objects, or vehicles.
•metaphors—lexical forms that are symbolically motivated, such as a dome-shaped movement over the head indicating 'heaven'. Language assessment or language testing The assessment of first,second or other language in different contexts.
It may include: Listening, speaking, reading, writing or cultural understanding Categories (a) selected-response assessments (including true-false, matching, and multiple-choice assessments) (b) constructed-response assessments (including fill-in, short-answer, and performance assessments) (c) personal-response assessments (including conference, portfolio, and self- or peer assessments) Discourse analysis It’s not only study language use 'beyond the sentence boundary', but also prefer to analyze 'naturally occurring' language use Literacy refers to the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think critically about the written word.
Key to all literacy is reading development, a progression of skills (the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, the deep understanding of text.) Reading development involves:
morphology Broader and complementary definitions United States added :"visually representing"
Scotland: "The ability to read, write and use numeracy, to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and lifelong learners."
Other genres under study by academia include critical literacy, media literacy, ecological literacy and health literacy The end Selective Mutism: A child with selective mutism does not speak in certain situations, like at school, bue speaks at ther times, like at home or with friends. Autism: It is a developmental disability that causes problems with social skills and communication