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Copy of CGC 1D & 1P - Geography of Canada

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Transcript of Copy of CGC 1D & 1P - Geography of Canada

Geography of Canada
Academic (CGC1D)

Geography, Canada, and me
(Unit 1)

Etymology/Origin of the word "Geography"
Two Latin words: Geo + Graphos
Geo = Earth
Graphos = Study
Simple Definition:
"The Study of the Earth"
Formal Definition:
"The study of the Earth, it's various landforms, the resources and processes that create them, the people who inhabit the Earth and their cultures and the interactions between the environment and society."
Branches of Geography
Physical
Geomatics
Human
(Landforms & Processes)
(Methods & Techniques)
(People & Cultures)
Mapping
What is a map?
A flat representation of the Earth's surface that is designed to communicate features clearly.
Scene Sketch
A diagram or drawing that captures a view of a landscape as observed.
Mental Maps
A diagram that is drawn from a person's memory that relies on landmarks and experience.
Describing Basic Direction
Most basic system for describing direction
The sun rises in the east and sets in the west
Earth has a natural magnetic field (A compass points to North)
Was derived from astronomical phenomena (stars, sun) in nature
16 Point Compass Rose
More accurate than cardinal points
Bearing System
Cardinal points with measured angles (measure the major angles)
Advantage:
You can find exactly where you need to know from angles
Azimuth System
Whole circle system
No letters, numbers only
Cardinal Points
Global Coordinate System
(Latitude has attitude)

Most important one is the Equator (0°)
AKA parallels
Labeled N or S (North or South of Equator)
Maximum of 90° (90° or N or S)
Lines of Latitude
Most important one is Prime Meridian
AKA meridians (middle)
Labeled E or W (East or West of Prime Meridian)
Maximum is (179°)
Lines of Longitude
Local Location
When dealing with same areas of the Earth's surface, a simple grid can be used
Alpha Numeric System
Grid with numbers and letters
04
03
02
01
A
B
C
is in "B2"
*Letters go first
Advantage:
You can find the local location
Disadvantage:
You may need to locate a location that is more specific
Uses a set of six digits to describe a location
6 Figure Military Grid
85
84
83
17
18
19
20
= 195 840
{
{
E
N
Advantage:
Identifying specific locations
Disadvantage:
Maybe confusing
Two Basic Maps
Topographic Maps
General purpose maps that contain information about many different topics
Government of Canada makes the National Topographic Series (NTS)
Thematic Map (Political Maps)
Maps made for a specific topic
They can contain lots of detail about one or two topics
For example, road or landuse maps
The are and science of the creation and analysis of maps for effective communication
Carte = Map
Graphy = Study
Cartography
Scale
A scale is the mathematical relationship that exists between the size of a real life object and the size of the copied object
It is critical to have a scale on a map
Word Scale
(Direct statement)
ex. 1cm = 10km
Line/Linear Scale (Ruler)
ex.
0
20
Representative Fraction
ex. 1:50 000
"Scale unknown"
"Not to scale" -cartogram (map-like diagram)
Alternative Scales
Elevation
MASL - Meters above sea level
Contour Lines
Lines on a map that connect points of equal elevation
The closer together the contour lines, the steeper the land
Contour lines that are far apart show a flatter land
Contour lines are used to show elevation on a flat surface.
Canada's Physical Diversity
(Unit 2)

What does the Earth look like?
The Earth is an oblate spheroid
Systems
A system is made up of different parts that connect to form a whole
Natural Systems
Includes the circulation of water in the ocean, weather, and climate systems, water drainage systems and energy cycles
Ecosystems
Systems that occur in nature, and together, they form the ecosystems that make up our environment
Human Systems
Includes human settlement, transportation systems (highway, railway, airline routes), communication systems (telephone networks) and information systems (internet)
Everything is connected in a complex web of systems.
Both natural and human systems that make up this web are dynamic.
Dynamic = constantly changing
System
Legal
Belief
Solar
Entertainment
Communication
Security
Systems and their components are dependent on one another
Synergy means that the whole system is greater than the sum of its parts (ex. cake, 1+1=3)
Four Macro Systems (4 Spheres)
Earth is made up of four spheres that are interconnected
Atmosphere
Surrounds the Earth with a thin layer of mixed gases that make up the air that you breathe
Consists of mainly nitrogen and oxygen (smaller gases also water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone)
It protects you from the sun's intense energy
Distributes the hear around the planet
Lithosphere
Lithos = rock, stone, soil
Earth's crust and the upper most part of the underlying mantle and consists of rocks, minerals and soil
It is broken into a number of pieces called crustal plates
These pieces move around very slowly on the underlying mantle in the process of plate tectonics
Hydrosphere
All the water on the Earth's crust (lakes, rivers, glaciers)
Frozen water cryosphere
Includes water stored in animal, plants
"Sphere of life"
Layer on Earth in which life evolves
Supports all living things
Biosphere
Earth's History
Can only be understood through extremely long time cycles (geologic time)
4.6 billion years old

Precambrain Era
Canada is covered in volcanoes
Canada as we see it today, does not exist
Volcanic activity stops
Tectonic plates collide
Appalachian mountains begin to form
Paleozoic Era
Canadian Shield begins to form as the center of Canada erodes and sediments wash East and West
Tectonic plates begin to collide
Mostly squishy wildlife (jellyfish)
Mesozoic Era
Appalachian mountains form (East coast) as plates collide
Rocky mountains (West coast) in early development
Birds and mammals (dinosaurs)
Cenozoic Era
Appalachian mountains eroding
Rocky mountains getting larger as Pacific plate collides with North American plate
Interior plains (central Canada) beginning to form
Glaciers
Era of humanoids (humans)
Characteristics of Natural Systems
Natural Systems
supports all living things,
including humans

are connected to one another in a complex network of relationships
decompose and recycle all waste
can be affected by natural events and human influences
are not well understood by humans
operate from very long timelines,
from hundreds to millions of years

operate in all four of Earth's spheres
displays synergy
are driven by energy from the sun
Continental Drift
Alfred Wegner, 1915, jigsaw puzzle
300mil years ago, everything was together (geological fit)
Pangaea (greek: all land/earth/super continent)
Split into two parts, a north part and a south part
Evidence
- Geological fit (jigsaw continents)
- Fossil evidence (matching fossils)
- Geological match (similar rock types)
- Paleomagnetic evidence (magnetic field in rocks
He could no explain how/why they separated
Hawaii is the tallest "mountain" in the ocean
Continents are attached to the ocean floor
- Wegner was wrong
Plate Tectonics
1960, Canadian scientist, J. Tuzo Wilson
Earth's crust is made of plates
Plates move over weak layer of hot rock several Km below surface
Energy from Earth's core move plates using convection currents
Physical effects
- Earthquakes and ocean ridges - when plates move away (diverge)
- Mountain ranges/volcanoes, ocean trenches/subduction zones - when plates move together (converge)
Transform, converge, diverge
Earth's Rocks
Igneous Rocks
(Heated, melted and cooled)
Form when magma cools and solidifies
When magma cools, large interlocking crystals form, resulting in granite
These rocks contain metallic minerals such as iron, copper, zinc, and gold
Sedimentary Rocks
(Caused by compression underwater)
Form when grains of sand, soil and rock particles are carried away usually from water and wind, and laid down in layers
Lower buried layers get compressed and hardened into sandstone
Bodies of marine animals containing calcium sink, they are compressed between sand and soil forming limestone (limestone contains fossils)
These rocks contain fuels such as coal, old and natural gas
Metamorphic Rocks
(Changed under intense heat and pressure over time)
Formed when sedimentary and igneous rocks change into new rock through heat and pressure
These rocks are found where moving plates have crashed and buckled
An example of a metamorphic rock is marble
Folding and Faulting
Convection pushes the crust together, it compresses and folds
- Mountains occur (Rocky mountains)
When convection pulls the crust apart, it causes cracking
- A fault appears often causing earthquakes/valleys
If two faults occur at the same time, a rift valley is is formed
- St. Lawrence River
Erosion and Deposition
Wind, water, ice and gravity are forces of erosion
Erosion causes material to be warn away and moved somewhere else (deposition)
The process of how sedimentary rocks are formed
Glaciation
Glaciers are over grown land icebergs
Glaciers form over time when more snow falls than melts
They can grow, shrink and move
As they move they scrape the land of rocks, soil, and vegetation
This debris is deposited in another location when the glacier begins to melt
Physical Regions, Physiography Regions, Land form Regions
The Canadian Shield
Geologic foundation of Canada
More than half of Canada is covered by the shield
3.96 billion year old rocks are located there
Consists of rounded hills of rock
Igneous and metamorphic rock form most of the shield
Valuable materials (lead, gold, nickel, copper and zinc)
Often called the storehouse of Canada's metallic minerals
Most areas have thin soil (no farming)
Rivers, waterfalls, lakes, rock outcrops, vast forests
Factors that Affect Climate
Bodies of water
Bodies of Water
(Nearness to water)
Affects temperature & Precipitation
Water moderates the temperature of land
Warmer in fall, colder in spring
Coastal areas have more precipitation (maritime)
Differences in precipitations also occur due to the direction of air masses
Latitude
(Affects temperature)
The further away from the equator, the cooler the temperature
Since the sun's rays hit Canada at an angle, the energy is less concentrated than at the Equator
The concentration of sun energy changes based on seasons (tilt of the Earth)
Light, shiny, smooth surfaces have a high Albedo (reflectiveness)
- This results in lower temperatures
Ocean Currents
(Affects temperature and precipitation)
Water doesn't change temperature as quickly as air does
The temperature of the ocean can have an effect on the surrounding air
Water in the ocean travel along predictable paths called currents
Currents traveling away from the Equator are warmer
Air that passes over water will contain more moisture
Latitude
Ocean currents
Winds
Elevation
Relief
Elevation
(Altitude)
(Affects temperature and precipitation)
Temperature decreases as altitude increases
Pressure goes down as you go up so air has less ability to hold heat
Dry air will cool about 1°C for every 100m
Moist air will cool about 0.6°C for every 100m
Winds
(Air Masses)
(Affects temperature and precipitation)
Air is constantly moving in large volumes called "Air Masses"
Air mass temperature and moisture depends on where the Air Mass originated (eg. A continental arctic is cold and dry)
Canada has a jet stream (If south, cold air, if norther, warm air)
Winds in Canada are westerlies (from W to E)
The leading edge of an Air Mass is called a front
Relief
(Affects precipitation)
As moist air is forced up a mountain, the pressure changes and can cause precipitation
Wet side = windward
Dry side = leeward
Canada's Cultural Diversity
(Unit 3)

Population
Population is the number of people who live in a given area at a given time
Population is not static (it can increase or decrease)
Canada's official population is 35 million people
Countries by population
- Worlds population (7 billion)
- China (1.3 billion)
- India (1.1 billion)
- USA (0.3 billion)
- Indonesia (0.2 billion)
- Brazil (0.2 billion)
Population Density
Population density is the measure of the number of people who live in a standardized area
Standardized area usually means 1km²
Population = 34mil
Area = 9.8mil km²
Canada's official population density is 3.3 people/km²
Countries by area
- World area (150mil km²)
- Russia (18mil km²)
- Canada (10mil km²)
- USA (9mil km²)
- Brazil (8mil km²)
Choropleth Mapping
A choropleth map is a mapping technique that allows comparison using colour of a single characteristic between areas
They are very common and useful maps
They are easy to understand and make
Population
Census Metropolitan Area
Most people in Canada live in CMA's
Toronto, Montreal, Canvouver, Ottawa, Calgary and Edmonton
Three largest CMAs: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver
Settlement Definitions
Ecumene (Heartland)
The permanently settled area of a country. This is where the population lives.
Hinterland
The area of land that does not support a permanent population
There may be temporary population (often seasonal) or no people at all
Studying population
People are key to the success of any task, project, or country
Demography is the numerical study of the characteristics, trends and issues of population
Those who study population are called demographers
Government set up agencies to do this work (Statistics Canada)
Most demographic statistics are reported as rates
Rates = easy comparisons
Indicators of Population
Fertility rate - average number of births each year to women between 15 and 45 years old
Infant mortality rate - number of children who die before their first birthday
Life expectancy at birth - number of years a baby is expected to live
Health care - number of doctors per 1000 people
Factors affecting population growth
Birth rate - The number of children born for every 1000 people/year
Immigration rate -The number of new arrivals to a country for every 1000 people/year
Death rate - The number of people who die for every 1000 people/year
Emigration - The number of people who leave a country for every 1000 people/year
Calculating population growth
Natural increase rate = birth rate - death rate
Doubling time
- Determines how many years it will take (at the current growth) to double the population
Doubling time
The rule of 70 is used to determine doubling time
- 70/natural increase (%) = doubling time (in years)
Format
POP = m
BR = /1000
DR = /1000
NIR = /1000
NIR (%) = /1000
DT = 70/NIR(%)
One of the most important important characteristics of a population it is Age-Sex (m/f) relationship
We graph this relationship using an age-sex pyramid/population pyramid
Population pyramids show the amount of the population broken down by age and sex
An exceptional tool for examining population trends (both historic and future)

Males on the left, females on the right
Age is visually grouped by sets of 5 years (0-4, 5-9)
Scale must be same for both genders
Scale at the bottom of pyramid can show either population/percentage
Males in blue, females in red
A profile of the population
Population Pyramids
Analyzing Population Pyramids
1. Overall shape
- Examine bottom, middle, top
2. Differences between sexes
- An easy way to see differences with males and females
3. Anomalies
- Strange/unusual situations that don't seem to fit the overall pattern
Death Rate
Birth Rate
Growing
Stable
Shrinking
Who depends on who?
In every population, there are those who can take care of themselves (independent)
There are also people who need someone to take care of them (dependent)
A population pyramid allows you to determine the percentage of the population that is dependent (dependency load)
Dependency load is determined by calculating the percentage of people 15 years and younger and 65 years and older
DL tells about social pressure in a country
Flow Maps
A flow map is a graduated symbol map
A graduated symbol map uses symbols of different sizes to show size/quantity characteristics
- A small symbol means a small amount
- A large symbol means a large amount
A flow map uses lines that connect places/objects together to show their relationship
- Thickness of the line is graduated
- Often we use arrow heads to show directionality
Immigration
Factors affecting immigration
- Push factors: factors that make you want to leave your home country (war, poverty, oppression)
- Pull factors: factors that attract you to another country (prosperity, equity, education)
Who gets in?
Thousands of people try to come to Canada each year
Canadian government cannot and will not accept everyone
Two basic tests:
- Health: No dander/risk to public
- Criminality: No criminal record
All applicants are processed under the federal classification system
Classes of immigrants:
- Skilled workers & Professionals
- Canadian experience
- Investors, entrepreneurs & self-employed
- Provincial nominees
- Family
- Refugee
Each independent immigrant is evaluated on a point system
Depending on the number of points, and immigrant is allowed into Canada or not
Culture: The beliefs, traditions and ways of life of a group of people (food, clothing, language, music, agriculture, family traditions, spiritual beliefs and recreational activities ).
Multiculturalism: A policy that encourages cultural diversity and respect for cultural diversity within a country.
Ethnic Enclaves: Different areas within one ethnic group (eg, Brampton)
Rural Divisions of Land
The way that land is divided for use by people can be a physical cultural imprint
In Canada, the pattern of rural settlement varies by region
Three patterns that affect the pattern of rural settlement
- Types of resources
- Transportation types
- Government policies
Settlement Systems
Seigneurial System
Long lot system
Used in Lower Canada (Quebec)
Giving everyone access to the St. Lawrence River
Line and Concession System
Townships with a standard grid
Used in Upper Canada (Ontario)
Focused on Lake Ontario
Sectional System
Total township was about 10km²
Focused on farming
Central Canada (Prairies)
Quarter section was about 800m²
Urban Settlement
Over 90% of Canadians live on urban areas(Urbanization)
Urban settlements grow from hamlets to cities
Urbanization occurs for many reasons (jobs, transportation, resources)
Countries have a core and periphery
Different parts of cities are used for different purposes (urban land use)
Residential
Where people life
Many different residences (single, family, semi-detached, duplex, town houses, apartments/condos, mixed)
Residential density varies within a city based on
- Cost of land
- Age of neighbourhood
Commercial
The are reserved for the buying and selling of goods/services
This "business are of a city can be classified as
- Low order: common stuff
- Middle order: less common stuff
- High order: expensive specialty stuff
Industrial
Reserved for the processing, manufacturing, storing and shipping of products
Very important financial area
Located close to major transportation
Open & Recreational Land
Undeveloped land and areas such as parks, gardens, green belts...
Institutional & Public Buildings
Schools
Hospitals
Government buildings
Churches
Transportation
All major and minor roads, railways, travel paths, parking lots, airports
Challenges of urbanization
Urban blight: decay of cities
Physical blight: the deterioration of the urban landscape from age and lack of maintenance
Functional blight: areas that cannot be used for their original purpose
Frictional blight: conflicting land use side by side
Alienation: isolation, loneliness when you are surrounded by many people
Crime: more people means more bad people
Poverty
Advantages of living in the suburbs
More space (less congested)
Peaceful (less/not much crime)
Not much poverty
- Provide a quiet residential life
People on the Land
(Unit 4)

Reasoning the use of resources
Capitalism
Environmentalism
Capitalism is an economic system in which private, individual or corporate interests are most important
Resources are seen as "products' to be exploited
Every mad for himself
Each person tries to make as much as they can of what they have
Driven by financial gain
A greedy system
Environmentalism is a philosophy of development that focuses on the preservation and maintenance of world resources for the benefit of all (the common good)
Two basic tenets:
- We are the world
- There are limited resources in the world
A sharing/saving system
Living within our means
Levels of Industry
Primary
Farmer
Lumberjack
Fisher
Miner
(Natural Resources)
Secondary
Assembly worker
Plumber
Carpenter
Bricklayer
(Fix + Builder)
Tertiary
Teachers
Flight Attendant
Doctor
Politician
(People helpers)
Quaternary
Professor
Astronaut
Research Scientist
Demographers
(Researchers)
Primary
Most of the jobs in Canada were related to natural resources
Natural resources earned Canadians the rep of "beavers of wood, drawers of water"
- Huge supplies of fish, coal, lumber
Canadians who work in primary industries are those who work directly with natural resources
Secondary
Manufactures products from goods for consumers
Canadians in the primary industries obtain raw materials, those who work in secondary industries build, construct and manufacture products from those raw materials
Tertiary
Largest group of Canadians work in this industry
Interacts with people
Service jobs
Quaternary
Creating and using information in new creative ways
Involves the creation of knowledge and intellectual services that are in the basis of research and development
Makes use of knowledge and ideas to create solutions to problems
Requires study, research and raw brain power
Our economy depends on Natural Resources
Strong natural resources
Skilled workers
Favorable patterns of world trade and strong export markets
Innovation and ingenuity

Innovation: The creation of new ideas
Entrepreneurs: People who want to start a business
Knowledge Economy: The creation of information to produce economy benefits
Types of Resources
Renewable: A resource that replenishes itself (over human time)
Non-Renewable: A resource that can be used up and cannot be replaced (replenishes over geological time)
Flow Resources: Neither renewable or non renewable (water, wind and sunlight)
The food of the Sea
(Canada's fishery resources)
Fishing (Primary resources)
- Many Canadians are dependent on food from the sea
Three type of fish
- Pelagic fish (surface)
- Ground water (deep water >50m)
- Shell fish (shallow)
Three major fishing areas of Canada
- Atlantic fishing (most significant area)
- Pacific Fishery
- Freshwater Fishery (inland lakes)
Atlantic (East Coast) Fishing
Europeans have fished Canada's coast for many years (400 years)
Fish flourish off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador because of the shallow waters of the Continental Shelf (grand banks)
Popular types of fish
- Cod, herring sardines, halibut, ground fish
- Lobster, crab, shrimp
Atlantic Fishery collapsed for many reasons
- Over fishing
- Improving techniques
- Destructive fishing practices
- Change in natural environment
Pacific (West Coast) Fishery
Many types of fish on the West Coast
- Salmon is the most important (chum, pink, spring)
- Salmon are pelagic fish (surface)
Salmon are unique because of their migratory live cycle (river, ocean, river)
- Catching salmon often involves nets along the migratory route
Challenges of Pacific Fishery
- Salmon are very sensitive to changes in their habitat (natural environment)
- Government fears that there will be a collapse salmon to the cod of the East
- Competition over fish (commercial, sport, native)
Freshwater Fishery
Canada has many lakes for fishing (600 lakes)
Lake Erie is the largest producers
- Perch, pickerel, trout, bass
- Fish are caught close to shore
Sport fishing is popular here ($$$)
Aquaculture is becoming more important
- Fish farms where fish are bred for food
- Cheap to operate big payback
- Customizable growth industry
The business of Agriculture
The importance of farming
- Everyone is impacted by farming
- "If you ate today, thank a farmer"
- 1 in every 5 jobs is related to agriculture
Farming is a business of chance
- Weather
- Pricing
- Yield
- Pests
Getting Dirt on the land
Soil is a renewable resource (if properly managed)
Not all soil is created equal
Canada created a Land Inventory system (CLI) for determining land capability
The CLI has 6 levels
- 1 to 3 is very good
- 7 is barren
The largest quantity of fertile soil is in Western Canada
Most of the Class 1 soil is underneath cities
Types of farming
Growing season is a big factor (days above -6°C)
Intensive farming: Small area of land with high value products
- Fruit, veggies, diary, poultry, bags
- Close to urban areas and perishable goods
- Many workers, some equipment
Extensive farming: large area of land, low value products
- Ranching, grain, seeds, mixed farming
- Non-perishable products
- Few workers, lots of equipment
Farming today
In 1880s, 80% of Canadians farmed
Today, less than 3%
Change caused by:
- Increased mechanization
- High start up costs
- Large multinational corporations
Degradation of farmland
- Erosion (over-working the land)
- Contamination of soil (fertilizers, pesticides)
- Loss of farmland (Toronto is 37% of Class 1 soil)
Food Security
Local areas do not grow own food
This is risky
- Availability
- Quality
- Price
Taking control of your local food
- Farmer's markets: Allows access to fresh and local food
- Pay attention to the origin of your food
- Cook your own meals
Canada's "Greenback"
The forestry resources of Canada
The size of green
- Canada has nearly 10% of the world's forests
- Almost 1/2 of Canada is forest (42%)
63% Coniferous trees
22% Deciduous trees
15% Mixed trees
Some forests can be harvested for money (commercial forests)
Types of Commercial trees
- Softwood (Coniferous: Spruce, Pine, Cedar)
Often used for pulp and paper
- Hardwood (Deciduous: Birch, Poplar, Cherry, Ash)
Often used for Lumber
Silviculture
The study of forests and their care is called Silviculture
Managing our forests
- Forestry industry generates lots of money
- Canada is the largest exporter of paper/wood pulp
- To protect out forests, alternatives to clear cutting were developed for a sustainable development approach
- Some old growth forests have been protected by law
Forest harvesting methods
Clear-cutting: Clearing an are of all its trees at a time

Strip logging: Cutting in long strops of land

Shelter wood cutting: Cut big trees, let little trees grow

Selection cutting: Selecting different trees
Challenges of Forestry
Forests are threatened on many fronts
- Forest fires
- Acid precipitation
- Insect and disease (ash borer, elm disease)
- Over consumption (taking too much)
Recycling helps prevent the waste of wood but can cause a loss of jobs
Trees form the foundation to much "natural" recreation
Model forests are a new approacch to managing small areas of local forest
Water
Commons: refers to nature's resources belong to everyone
"The frog does not drink up the pond in which he lives"
Others see water as an economic resource (commodity)
Canada has 50% of the world's water
20% of the world is fresh water
Wetlands: Water in a marsh, swamp, or fen that is fresh or salty, standing or flowing, two to six meters in depth
Mining
Every aspect of our lives relate to mining
Almost every major mining product used in the world is mined somewhere in Canada
Nearly 300 mines with some 60 products
Canada ranks 3rd in mineral products but 1st in exports
Mining employs about 4% of Canadians
Mining products results in a high multiplier effect
- Total impact gets bigger as product is manipulated
A mineral is a natural occurring pure chemical compound
Valuable deposits of minerals are called ores
Four types of minerals:
- Metallic Minerals: used to create metals with many uses (gold, iron, copper)
- Fuel Minerals: sources of energy (oil, gas, coal)
- Industrial Minerals: huge variety of minerals used for their industrial characteristics (diamonds, gypsum, stone, soap, salt)
Value hierarchy -> fuel, metal, industrial
Almost 3/4 of Ontario minerals are metallic
The making of a mine
Hire a geologist to find mineral reserve
Methods of mining
- Strip mining: extracts minerals close to the surface in horizontal layers
-Open pit: for materials that start near the surface and extend deeper (requires blasting)
-Underground: deep into the earth for metallic minerals (drilling, blasting and reinforcing)
Processing the minerals
1. Milling: removal of waste rock
2. Smelting: refining (purification) by fire
waste (slag) are removed leaving pure metal
Pollution
- Liquid waste (tailing) can be toxic
- Fossil fuels used for furnaces in smelting
- Scarring of landscape
Canada's energy resources
Canada is one of the largest users of energy in the world
- Cold climate, very large country, advanced industrial economy
Several resources can be used for energy
- Convectional energy sources (98%)
Oil, natural gas, coal, hydro and nuclear
- Alternative energy sources (2%)
Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, fuel cell
60% of energy use goes to industrial and transportation
Fossil Fuels
Oil and gas are found together (created by decay of animals)
Trapped underground and requires drilling and pumping to access the source (very expensive)
Most fossil fuel reserves are in the prairies
Some fossil fuels have been found off-shore and in the arctic
Coal is also a fossil fuel, it is mined
When fossil fuels are burned, they release harmful chemicals into the environment
Electricity
Electricity is created by turning a turbine in a generator
Several different ways to accomplish this
- Hydro Electric: water turns turbine
- Thermal Electric: steam turns turbine (water is heated)
- Nuclear Electric: steam turns turbine
Every province has some generation capability
Electricity is exported to the US
Better for the environment
- Tidal power: turbines turn with the change in tides
- Solar energy: several different types but all use the sun for heating
- Geothermal energy: water heated by the high temperature of Earth's interior
- Wind energy: wind turns turbines which creates electricity
- Fuel Cell: highly advanced technology that converts chemicals directly into energy
Alternative Fuels
William Rees
Carrying capacity
- Ecological footprint: amount of Earth's resources it takes to support your lifestyle (hectares)
All Canadian cities are above 1.9 hectares/person
- Canada 7.7
- Ethiopia 0.9
- Australia 8.5
Climate Change > Global Warming
Global warming: Refers to the gradually increasing temperature of the Earth
Climate change: global warming but also includes cooling in some parts of the Earth and changes in precipitation amounts and wind intensity
Greenhouse effect: the greenhouse gases absorb heat and spread it throughout the atmosphere
Affects on Canada's wildlife:
- Disease and different migration patterns
- Forest fires
- Permafrost would melt
- Transportation problems
Canadians love cars
- More travel by car (1 car/2 people)
- Small area
Canada's transportation System
Second largest country in the world
Unique problems arise when trying to keep connected
700km from Vancouver to St. John's
10 000km from Inuvik to St. John's
Bus
Rail service is not much used for passengers
- More rail coverage of Canada than road coverage
- Technology is not up to date
- Not convenient enough
- Major provides : via, CNR, GO
Buses are used for short trips (<1000km)
Railway
Moving People
Transporting Resources
Railways are the backbone of Canada's Transportation System
- Good for bulk cargo (coal, grain, wood, oil)
- Faster to load containers than unload and reload cargo
Truck transportation
Lower initial costs no rail restriction and no fixed quality
Limited by lack of roads
Train
Ships
Ships are the best way to move very bulky, low value cargo (grain, ores, construction, minerals)
West coast - East coast - St. Lawrence seaway
Northern areas
Alternatives
Airplanes are used for cargo
- Expensive but versatile and very quick
Pipelines are a key transportation tool
- Oil and gas
- Very inexpensive to maintain once build
Wire transportation
- Good for electrical products like electricity
- Supports the transfer of information
International Interconnections
International Trade
Trade is all about the exchange of goods and services between countries
Export refers to goods being sold by your country to another
Import refers to goods being purchased and brought to your country from another
Key goals of international trade are:
- Sharing resources
- Making money
Why do we trade?
Export
- Revenue: Anything we sell makes money for Canada
-Expanded Market: Bigger markets exist outside of Canada
- Jobs: Many jobs Canada are related to exports
- Lower: Higher volume of sales means products can be produced cheaply
- Quantity: Competition means that quality is improved
Import
- Product needs: Get products not made in Canada
- Quality: Competition means quality is improved
- Cost: Cheaper goods produced outside of Canada
- International development: Helps the economies of other countries
Canada's Trade
What does Canada import?
- High tech products (electronics)
- Automobile parts
- Goods produced in warm climates (tropical foods)
- Low cost goods (clothing)
Imports (2010)
1. USA
2. China
3. Mexico
4. Japan
What does Canada export?
- Natural resources (raw materials)
- Automobiles (assembled and components)
- Specialized manufactured goods (airplanes, electronics, telecommunications, nuclear products
Exports (2010)
1. USA
2. United Kingdom
3. China
4. Japan
Free Trade VS. Protectionism
Free trade: trading without restriction
Protectionism: things that the government does to protect Canadian products
- Tariffs: taxes on foreign goods
- Quota: limits on the quantity of foreign goods inn Canada
- Subsides: government covers a part of the cost of making products in Canada (tax breaks, interest free loans)
Measuring a countries worth
Gross domestic Product (GDP)
- The value of all the goods and services produced and sold by a country per year
- Often measured as a value per person (GDP per capita)
- An indicator of the economic activity (wealth) of a country
- Canada's GDP (2011) was $1.57 trillion
Free trade
Canada has a free trade agreement with USA and Mexico
This agreement is called the NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement
It means we are supposed to trade without restriction
MNC
MNC (Multinational Corporations) are very large companies that have operations in many countries
Very powerful because they make more money than the GDP of many countries
Globalization
Globalization is the increasing international interrelationships of cultural people and economy
Impacts of Globalization
Benefits
- Cultural awareness
- Cultural respect
Detriments (cons)
- Cultural erosion (local culture wears off)
- Cultural infiltration (allow other cultures)
Canada: An international player
Canada is an important player on the international stage
Recognized internationally as a compassionate and trustworthy country
Our multicultural mosaic gives us insight into any culture and country
Canada is part of many international associations
NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
- Group dedicated to collective military defensive, peace, stability, democracy and human rights
Canadian Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
-ex. World wildlife foundation
Canada is a member of the British Commonwealth
- Association of former British Colonies
- 54 countries in total
- Includes Australia, South Africa, India
Provides Canada with a connection to many countries through Britain
Affects our culture and celebrations
- Queen and royalty
- Sports events (commonwealth games)
- Family connections
Canada is is a member of the OIF
- An association of french-speaking countries
- Total of 50 countries (450 million people)
Formed at the end of WW2 to promote peace and development
Represents 194 countries
Provides conflict resolution mechanisms, diplomacy and peacekeeping efforts
Canada was a funding member
Ever year of Canada provides troops for peacekeeping missios
Divisions of UN
- Unicef, fao, who
The commonwealth
The international Organization of La Francphonie (OIF)
United Nations
Other International Associations
Canada's international policies
Foreign aid
- Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Helping people with poverty, partnerships
- Canada donated 0.2% of its GDP in 2005 to foreign aid
Human rights
- International policy - making to secure rights of all people
-Canada helps fight against discrimination, disease, torture and assassination, landmines
Peacekeeping
- Canada's most recognized military roles
- Canadian came up an idea with peace keepers (Lester B. Pearson)
- Neutral force to prevent aggression between groups of people
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