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Jazz History Timeline
Transcript of Jazz History Timeline
Early Dixieland- 1900-1920
Chicago Style 1920s
Swing/Big Band Era 1930-early 1940s
Bebop mid 1940s-mid 1950s
Cool Jazz 1949-1960
Hard Bop/Gospel Jazz/Funky
Neo-classic Jazz 1980s-present
A historically conscious movement
Traced its history through the African American jazz legacy
Consensus in the jazz community of its “Art Form” status
Wynton Marsalis- trumpeter, bandleader, composer
Terence Blanchard (b. 1962)
film score composer,
Jon Faddis (b. 1953)
Disciple and protégé of Dizzy Gillespie
Conductor, band leader
Joe Lovano (b. 1952)- Tenor Saxophone
Played for Woody Herman in the 70s
Gained prominence in the 90s in small group settings
Jane Ira Bloom (b. 1955)
Bridges the jazz gender gap
Blends many styles and world music
Kenny Garrett (b. 1960)
Played with Miles in the 90s
Blends mainstream with other elements
Virtuosic player in the Coltrane, Rollins tradition
The Bad Plus
Redefines the modern trio
Hybrid styles connecting freer styles with fusion
Innovative vocalist combining many jazz and non-jazz vocal styles
Vocal soloist who imitates jazz rhythm section as he sings
Vocal Jazz mixed w/Gospel lyrics
Harry Connick Jr.
Pianist, singer, composer, bandleader, movie/t.v actor
Pianist, singer, composer
Jelly Roll Morton
Pre-Jazz American Music (1850-1900)
John Philip Sousa
Minstrel Show songs
Classically trained Creoles segregated w/blacks-mix musical traditions
Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five and Hot Seven
Austin High Gang
2 beat rhythms
Front line- Saxophone instead of or along with clarinet, trumpet, trombone
Front line- trumpet, clarinet, trombone
Rhythm- drums, banjo, tuba
Texas and later NYC/Harlem- Boogie Woogie
Rhythm- Guitar, Drums, Piano, String Bass
Don Redman- Saxophonist and composer employed by Fletcher Henderson in 1920s and early 1930s.
Count Basie Band
Riff style-- Short repeated pattern
Less written down, emaphasis on soloing and the blues form.
ODJB- Nick LoRocca
Benny Goodman- "King of Swing"
Swing- 4 beat drum beat combined w/backbeat on 2nd and 4th beat
Sweet Bands- Gene Krupa, Harry James, Glen Miller, Tommy Dorsey Band.
Boogie Woogie bass line
"Papa" Joe Jones- Basie drummer
European Classical Music (Creoles)
James Reese Europe- Led all-black infantry marching band that played
marches in a syncopated style.
horns- 3 or 4 saxes (clarinet sometimes), 3 trombones, 3 or 4 trumpets
rhythm sections- drums, string bass, piano, acoustic guitar
Best bands still had great soloists
Swing also referred to a style of swinging notes together- pioneered by Louis Armstrong
Bandleader and composer who employed Louis Armstrong in 1924 as "hired gun." Brought
excitement and showmanship to the band w/his trumpet style, singing style, and personality.
Redman and Henderson set the standard for big band arranging and forms.
Violinist who was one of the first to lead a large
orchestra w/ featured jazz solo-
ists (Frankie Traumbauer- sax, Bix
Henderson's band was a training ground
for legendary soloists- Coleman Hawkins (tenor sax), Louis Armstrong (tpt.)
Henderson later went on to be a successful
composer and arranger for Benny Goodman's Band in the 1930s.
Whiteman showed that a larger group could use lush arrangements and unique harmonies to make "jazz" songs more appealing to a white audience.
Whiteman launched the careers of many important white band
leaders and soloists- Bix Beiderbecke (tpt.), Frankie Traumbauer (Sax),
Red Nichols (bandleader and trumpet), Tommy Dorsey (trombonist/bandleader),
Jimmy Dorsey (Asaxophonist/bandleader), Bing Crosby (singer).
Along with Lester Young is considered the most influential tenor saxophone players of the 1930s and 1940s.
Big sound with a wide vibrato. Improvised whole new melodies with long flowing lines instead of just personalizing the original melody with extra notes and syncopation.
Harlem Renaissance (1920s)
Volstead Act repealed
1,000s fill ballrooms around the country to dance to swing music
Recordings and radio helped popularize swing in the 1930s
First jazz concert - 1936
Over 18,000 musicians on the road (touring) by 1937
Benny Goodman presents first jazz concert at Carnegie Hall - 1936
Drummer and band leader at Savoy Ballroom
Considered one of the first great swing drumming soloists
Discovered jazz singing legend Ella Fitzgerald
Considered one of the greatest
jazz singers of all time. Used and developed Louis Armstrong's scat singing approach to sound like an instrument improvising.
Extremely financially successful
during WWII. Few important soloists but brought swing to a worldwide audience.
Trumpet link from Armstrong to next generation of great trumpeters. Long flowing improvisations with powerful sound.
Inspired clarinet playing
Began playing professionally at 16
International celebrity for over 40 years
“Rock-star” status in 1930s as bandleader and performer.
Accomplished improviser who employed both black
and white musicians and respected by most jazz musicians from Chicago to NY.
Had his own radio show and launched the careers of other great jazz musicians:
Teddy Wilson (pianist), Lionel Hampton (vibraphone), Charlie Christian (guitar),
Gene Krupa (drummer), Harry James (trumpet)
Duke Ellington is considered the greatest composer
of American Music (not just a Jazz composer).
Band had an equal emphasis on top-of-
the-line soloists and innovative, swing-
Ellington is also an influential pianist who's playing style
uses elements of stride, classical, and modern swing.
1928- Leaves Chicago for Europe. Huge success.
1935- Comes back to US and heads his own big band in NYC.
Brings his unique brand of swing and showmanship to the NY
society band and ballroom scene.
Mary Lou Williams
Harry "Sweets" Edison- trumpet
- Juke Joints
- Honky Tonks
- K.C. was run by Tom Pendergast (mayor/boss)
and organized crime.
- Territory bands- Jay McShann, Andy Kirk, Bennie Moten
Began as a stride piano player in NYC
Stranded in KC in 1927 and learned to play blues/boogie woogie in Walter Paige's band.
Merged Paige's and Moten's Band after Moten died from a tonsillectomy in 1934. Changed from stride style of piano to a spare riff style in the big band.
Band was "discovered" by John Hammond (rich jazz/blues afficianado) and brought to NYC in 1937.
Self-taugh stride piano player.
Started playing professionaly at age 8
Joined her husband at age 17 in Andy Kirk's Band in Kansas City. Started writing for Kirk's band.
Recorded as a soloist in Chicago in 1930.
Created and wrote what was considered the signature Kansas City band sound.
Joined Duke Ellington's band in 1942 to write for his band as well.
Mentored many future piano greats and other soloists in 1940s.
Bass player/ bandleaderwho pioneered the Walking Bass line.
Changed the way bass was thought of in
Made it a neccessity in swing rhythm section.
Joined Basie's band when his went bankrupt.
Transferred swing pattern from bass drum to cymbals.
Nicknamed "Prez" by Billy Holiday
Light, lyrical, laid-back approach to playing tenor sax
Different sound than Coleman Hawkins
Connected w/Billy Holiday musically and they toured together in Basie's band.
Influenced many players to come in 1940s and 1950s.
Came up with many blues riffs for Basie songs.
Tasty blues-style soloist with muted effects.
Considered to be one of the most influential of all jazz singers.
Unique, blues-based style.
No scat singing but very personal sound and style.
Sang with many of the greatest swing bands of the day including Basie's band in the late 1930s.
Had a musical kinship with Lester Young. They both heard music and how jazz should be played in a similar way.
Trumpet soloist who played with Basie that had a major influence on trumpet players in 1940s and 1950s bebop players.
Ellington added personal expression of performer- i.e. how that performer improvises- as a compositional tool.
Kept an almost perfect balance between the personal expression of his players and his own ideas as a composer.
Often collaborated with other performers in his band when writing songs.
Made sure to keep the same players in his bands for years even though many of them could have led their own successful bands as leaders.
Compositional tools for traditional composers-
Melody- the tune
Harmony- chords used to fill out the tune. Ellington liked to use harmonies commonly found in European Classical music and experimented constantly with different harmonies for songs.
Rhythms- beat patterns
Form- ABA, etc.
Texture- 1. multiple melodic lines at the same time or 2. melody with chord patterns in the background.
Tone Colors- combinations of instruments to get different sound. Ellington experimented with different and unique tone colors (instrument combinations) to get original or unique sounds.
Born in D.C. 1899
From well-off family and received piano lessons.
Talented painter and awarded art scholarship to study in NYC
Moved to Harlem and to learn ragtime/stride piano at age 21.
Returned broke to DC in 1920 but formed his first group upon his return to DC.
1923 returned to NYC with a larger group (9) called the Washingtonians
1927-Cotton Club in Harlem gave Ellington his first big break.
JUNGLE SOUNDS STYLE (1927-1931)
Composed music for his group that played for an all-female "African dance" show at the Cotton Club in Harlem.
Music Ellington composed was supposed to evoke sounds of the African Jungle.
Ellington's music from this period incorporated the unique improvised muted sounds of his trumpeters- "Bubber" Miley and Cootie Williams. as well as muted sounds of his trombonist- "Tricky Sam" Nanton.
Was the first composer to write and record longer works for Jazz Band- "Black and Tan Fantasy", "Harlem Airshaft", "Concerto for Cootie"
Ellington experiments with unique combinations of instruments to get unique sounds.
Compositions were taylored to highlight a particular bandmember's sound in combination with another bandmember's sound- i.e- Cootie Williams trumpet sound combined with Barney Bigard's clarinet sound or Johnny Hodge's alto sax sound combined with "Tricky Sam" Nanton's sound.
"Mood Indigo", "Solitude", "Creole Love Call", "A Prelude to a Kiss."
Standard Style (1930-1945)
Characterized by Ellington and Strayhorn's memorable melodies and danceable swing rhythms.
"It Don't Mean A Thing if it Ain't Got that Swing", "Take the A Train (written with Billy Strayhorn)", "Satin Doll", "In a Mellow Tone."
Features for soloists in Ellington's band.
Cootie Williams (trumpet)- "Concerto for Cootie"
Harry Carney (Bari-Sax)- "Do Nothing Till You Hear From Me."
Bubber Miley (trumpet)- "Black and Tan Fantasy"
Johnny Hodges (alto sax)- "Passion Flower"
Rex Stewart (cornet)- "Harlem Airshaft"
Jimmy Blanton (bass)- "Sophisticated Lady"
Large Scale Works for Jazz Band/Orchestra (1945-1965)
"A Drum is a Woman"
"The Shakespearean Suite"
"Jump for Joy"
"Black, Brown, and Beige" Suite- A history of the negro race.
Black- Work Song, Come Sunday,
Brown- Celebrates the victories of black soldiers from the Revolution to WWII
Beige- Depicts the life of the upper class blacks in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance.
Panned by critics initially when performed at Carnegie Hall in 1943. John Hammond in particular thought Ellington's group wasn't a Jazz group at all.
"Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue"
Ellington's Bass player from 1939-1941
Career cut short by tuberculosis- died at age 23
Next great dominant bass player after Walter Paige
Noted for being the first to record improvised bass solos
Collaborator/co-writer with Ellington from 1938 till his death in 1967
Co-wrote many of Ellington's signature swing tunes and longer works.
Most famous tunes were "Take the A Train" and "Satin Doll."
Ellington called Strayhorn his "right hand, right arm, and the eyes in the back of my head."
African Americans return home from WWII to segregation
Beginning of Civil Rights struggles
Reaction by black community to commercialization of jazz.
Sense by black jazz musicians that jazz had become dance music only.
After-hours small-group jam sessions in uptown NYC clubs lead to bop experimentation.
Young black musicians were trying to advance jazz beyond dance music that any musician could play to an exclusive music that could only be played by the most advanced improvisers.
Recording ban due to musicians union strike.
Bebop is characterized by-
Fast swing tempos, bass drum bombs/drum hits
1 alto and/or tenor sax, 1 trumpet in front
piano, bass, drums (sometimes guitar) in rhythm
new "Jazz Canon" of songs with long, flowing, syncopated melodies
extended chords with dissonances- piano comping (Basie)
"wrong" notes used in solos to create tension
very fast, viruostic solos by every instrument and/or double time solos
fast, flowing melody played in unison followed by solos then recap of melody.
Charlie Parker- alto saxophone/composer
Considered the new generation's great saxophonist
Improv influenced by Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young
Sound influenced by Frankie Traumbauer (white Chicago Dixieland saxophonist) and Buster Smith (KC)
Most widely imitated saxophone improv style and sound by every modern saxophonist.
Parker, along with Thelonious Monk and Bud Powell (piano), Kenny Clarke (drums), Oscar Pettiford (bass), and Dizzy Gillespie (trumpet), is considered to be one of the inventors of the Bebop soloing style.
Started in Jay McShann Big Band (KC) and went with them to NY. Subbed in Basie Band but was fired for his progressive soloing style.
Formed a band with trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and later with trumpeter Miles Davis that became the protypical bebop ensemble.
John Burkes "Dizzy" Gillespie- trumpet
Along with Parker considered the inventor of the Bebop soloing language.
Heavily influenced by the powerful sound and virtuostic soloing of Roy Eldridge.
Played higher and faster than most trumpet players and was famous for his use of humorous "wrong" notes in solos.
Showman who also led his own big band after leaving Cab Calloway's band in NYC.
One of the first to incorporate Cuban rhythms in bebop, also known as cubop (Chano Pazo- important Cuban hand drummer w/Gillespie).
Along w/Charlie Parker is responsible for the new "Jazz Cannon" of songs.
Thelonius Monk 1917-1982
Talent and importance not readily recognized
Heavily influenced by Duke Ellington and Mary Lou Williams piano playing.
Played piano with Parker and Gillespie before being leading the house band at Minton's
First recordings in 1947
Lost his cabaret card and thereby the ability to play in New York clubs in the 50s
Wrote important and original tunes that remain part of the jazz canon- "Epistrophy", "Blue Monk", "Bag's Groove", "Misterioso", "Straight No Chaser."
Cubop- combination of bop style and Cuban/Latino rhythms.
First explored in recordings with "Dizzy" Gillespie and Chano Pazo
Big Bands of the 1940s also added Latino percussionists to give their band a more modern sound.
Dizzy Gillespie All-Stars, Stan Kenton Big Band, Tito Puentee
Bebop in Big Bands
Dizzy Gillespie All-Stars
Featured Dizzy's trademark showmanship
Gave steady work to up and coming Bebop musicians
Billy Eckstine Band
Crooner who also made sure his best bebop players were featured.
Miles Davis (trumpet), Clark Terry (trumpet), Fats Navarro (trumpet)
Jazz Singing legend Sarah Vaughn discovered and featured
Other Important Bebop innovators:
Drums- Max Roach
Bass- Oscar Pettiford, Ray Brown
Piano- Bud Powell, Tad Dameron
Trumpet- Miles Davis,
Alto Sax- Sonny Stitt,
Trombone- J.J. Johnson
Originally referred to as“Funky Hard Bop Regression”
Funky refers to rollicking rhythmic feeling
Sometimes referred to as soul
Associated with African American church music
Hard refers to a more intensely emotional and evocative performance
Bop regression implies a return to the elements of bop
A reaction to the intellectualism of cool
African Americans sought a link with their roots
Adopted American oral idioms found in gospel and blues
Geographically pointed to New York, Philadelphia and the East Coast
Funky refers to rollicking rhythmic feeling
Sometimes referred to as soul
Associated with African American church music
Horace Silver(b. 1928)
Progenitor of the funky style
Founded Jazz Messengers with Art Blakey
Contributed much to the jazz canon
Standardized the quintet sound of the 50s and 60s
Sonny Rollins(b. 1930)
Great influence beginning in the late 1950s
A melodic/thematic improviser
More concerned with thematic development
Long evolving solos
Style imitated by many younger players
At the forefront of the jazz mainstream
Career lasted 40 years
discovered many future
Led the Jazz Messengers
Defined the aggressive, hard bop approach to drumming
Universally agreed to be one of the most important saxophonists of the 20th century
Tenor and Soprano Saxophone
Short but meteoric career - 12 years
First important recordings with Miles Davis 1955-60
Classic quartet with McCoy Tyner, piano; Elvin Jones, drums; Jimmy Garrison, bass 1962-65
Fast arpeggios referred to as “Sheets of sound”
Great coordination and speed
Advanced harmonic improvisation
Made use of higher harmonics
Reintroduced the soprano saxophone
Introduced new devices
Sequences, arhythmic playing
Beautiful, modern tone
Comfortable in all registers of the instrument
Difficult to categorize
Identified with funky, gospel, free
Ties to swing and bop traditions
Bass playing and compositions possessed a rare emotional intensity
Free Jazz first came to prominence in the 1960s with John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman (alto sax), Eric Dolphy (saxes, bass clarinet), and Don Cherry (trumpet) .
Political, social, and cultural movements surrounded the development of Free-Jazz.
1959- Ornette Coleman, alto saxophone, trumpeter Don Cherry, bassist Scott LaFarro, and drummer Billy Higgins on the left.... Trumpeter Freddie Hubbard, bass clarinetist Eric Dolphy, bassist Charlie Haden, and drummer Ed Blackwell record "Free Jazz." A new style is born.
-Agressive, radical approach to improving civil rights for minorities and women
-Rebellious attitude especially by young people.
-Public protests and Vietnam War.
-MLK, JFK, RFK, Malcolm X all assassinated in 1960s. Riots in major urban areas.
-Civil rights became law. Conflict among the races.
-Drugs are o.k. and in some
cases beneficial. Hippy movement
Miles Davis- "Bitches Brew"
Miles Davis, Gil Evans
Variety of instruments
Slower, less agitated feel
Appealed to white audience.
Early Rural Blues
"King"- Buddy Bolden
Early Piano Jazz
Willie "The Lion" Smith
James P. Johnson
Earl "Fatha" Hines
Meade Lux Lewis
Miles Davis Quintet
Miles Davis sextet
Miles Davis- Tutu
Other Avante Garde/
-Vietnam war protests
-War on poverty
-Federal College loan/grants, Baby boomers come of age
-Kent State shootings
Dirty Dozen Brass Band
- Combine N.O. dixieland instrumentations w/modern funk beats.
Roy Hargrove- Trumpet
Influences include Miles Davis.
Plays w/electric or acoustic groups.
Swing, bop, hard bop, or more modern styles
New Orleans soul sound combined w/pop or rock beats.
Heavy, loud distorted sounds designed to get crowd response.
Pop sensibility w/improv featuring a loud, aggressive, intensely rhythmic sound on trombone.
Bassist and Singer in her 20s
Grammy award winner
Youngest Associate Professor of Jazz at prestigious Berklee College of Music
Nat King Cole
-singer and piano player
-cross-over into black and white
Caravan Palace- Electro-swing
"Clash" live version
Album recorded 10 years before
first official Free Jazz album by