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Early Civilizations of Africa
Transcript of Early Civilizations of Africa
Chapter 11, Section 1
How did geography and natural resources affect the development of early societies throughout Africa?
ring of vast rainforests
Surrounding that ring are the
And after the grasslands, comes the
deserts doing desert things
Africa is home to the largest "hot" desert, the Sahara.
covers 25% of the continent
The size of the desert isn't constant, it constantly alters it's size, and shape.
. You could just call it 'desert desert'.
But the Sahara wasn't always a desert
Like the rest of Africa at that point, it was
cultivate the Nile Valley
and to domesticate animals.
But the continents were still moving, and everything was just forming, so in its newfound "spot"
Fertile land drying and dying then becoming a desert
, or plain barren land capable of supporting very little vegetation.
desertification forced people to leave
Migrating West African people spoke a variety of languages. The
Bantu people spread many skills
Bantu = "people"
Savanna (Not Georgia)
tropical grasslands all over Africa
There are scarce trees, and mostly shrubbery and grasses, with many weeds.
Savannas do go through
drought very often
plant and animal
life have learned to
but it's not all dry.
The umbrella thorn acacia is a common deciduous tree in the African Savanna.
As well as elephant grass, which is used as bedding for animals and can be woven into many things.
The center "ring" along the equator is full of rainforests. These forests have a wide array of plants as well as animals.
These forests have a high plateau interior, filled with hills and rivers that have
. They made movement very difficult. Migrations were very hard and were either stopped or delayed until the Bantu people.
Maletsunyane Falls, Lesotho
Tanzania to the left of the river, Zambia to the right
Gorillas are found in the forest
Leopards are also found in the forest
The role of the Mediterranean
to regions in southwest
Asia and Europe
We all know that trades were good for civilizations
It increased wealth, knowledge, and social bonds
GEography, In Sum
These various regions of land affected the growth and development of Africa, then and now.
African civilizations were also influenced culturally, seeing as these regions made movement difficult, so ideas tended to stay put.
In which Nubia can't hold on to its power
control, they made the Nubians
move their capital to Meroë
Nubia was under Egyptian control in their beginnings, so their culture is heavily influenced by them.
like every other civilization,
flourished along a river
, in their case the
Eventually, Nubian society evolved into the
Kingdom of Kush
, which kept the capital in
came and began
building a port along the Mediterranean coast
that later turned into
for a little under 100 years, stretching from
present day Tunis
all the way to southern Europe.
This however started
trading rivalries with Rome
, leading to the
resulting in the complete destruction of Carthage.
After winning the Punic Wars, Rome claimed land along the Mediterranean all the way to the Sahara.
This revolutionized most of Northern Africa by:
Muslims successfully conquered the land of North Africa
(like the Romans).
The language changed from
Latin to Arabic
The base religion quickly changed from
Christianity to Islam
Islam spread to the rest of Africa, so a
blend of African traditions and Islam
Islam spreads to Africa
Africa is the 2nd largest continent in the world
Wide range of climates
A wide range of vegetation
There are 500 unique languages spoken today that have their origins in the original Bantu language.
present day Sudan
Nubia and Egypt never got along
; they traded often, but these
trades are what caused fights
Egypt ruled Nubia for about 500 years
Egypt's decline led to Nubia being "free" for a few years
And not long after they were
reclaimed by Assyria
this time, after an attack
The Move to
In all, about 220 pyramids were built in Meroe, spread across three sites.
They remained relatively intact until the 1830s, when Italian treasure hunter Giuseppe Ferlini smashed the tops off 40 pyramids while searching for gold and jewels.
Salt, gold, iron, and copper
were the most prevalent resources at this time (and, really, still today). They were traded between cities and then
into other continents.
Deserts made it initially hard to reach these far-flung places, but by 200 AD a solution came from Asia
"Ships of the desert"
New trade routes opened up because camels could go
20 - 30 miles a day without water