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leader behavior and leadership effectiveness

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Rui Zhao

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of leader behavior and leadership effectiveness

The development of leader behavior theories Extra questions Leader behavior & leadership effectiveness Situational & follower differences in leadership contingency theory Support

Interaction facilitation

Goal emphasis

Work facilitation important trends of Leadership behavior Leadership & Leader behavior employee grievance & turnover
general effectiveness
LMX situational favorableness:
the degree of power and influence the situation gives to the leader:
Leader-member relations
task structure
position power Rui Zhao i6045392 timeline of leadership behavior theories Ralph Stogdill (1948)
leadership consists of movement...
leadership should be seen as a working relationship Ohio State University (1957)
two leadership behaviors:
initiating structure Reference Bowers &Seashore (1966)
summarize correspondent leadership concepts :
four dimensions of leadership
Interaction facilitation
Goal emphasis
Work facilitation Criticism of the research of Ohio State University
Expand theories to situational approaches
contingency theory (Fiedler, 1967)
Life cycle / Situational leadership theory (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969)
Path-goal theory (House, 1971)
Leadership substitutes theory (Kerr & Jermier, 1978) Re-investigation of consideration and initiating structure theory

Judge et al. (2004)
Derue et al. (2011)
Lamber et al. (2012) Bass (1985)
The transformational leadership theory
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire ( Bass & Avloio,1990) Zip in & introduction Zip in: What do you think of these two chapters?

Which part do you find interesting?

The relationship of these chapters to others? Agenda The development of leader behavior theories
4 dimensions of leadership
Leader behavior and leader effectiveness
grievance and turnover rate
leader behavior & LMX
Situational and follower difference in leadership
path-goal theory
contingency theory
Extra questions
Zip out 4 dimensions of
leadership personal worth and importance members develop close, mutually satisfying relationships behavior stimulates enthusiasm for goal or performance scheduling, coordinating, planning & providing resources Do you think the 4 dimensions are equally important?

If you are a manager, which dimension you think is most important? Game Your team is going to arrange a
lecture/ seminar / training course.....of the topic

your team leader is familiar with OR
team members are familiar with within 5 minutes :
brief introduction of your course
short presentation within 1 minute Leadership may be either "supervisory" or "mutual" For example : The group's need of support may be provided by:
formally designated leader,
members for each other,
both You have experienced the same ?

Why the dimensions are called "leadership dimensions" not "dimensions of group needs"?

Are leaders still necessary in group? if a manager wish to increase the extent to which his subordinates emphasize goals to one another, he must first increase his own facilitation of interaction and his emphasis upon goals. consideration sensitivity production
emphasis initiating
structure "production emphasis" --motivating the group
"sensitivity"-- social awareness inside and outside group

are too little common variance. consideration & structure
self- sacrifice & self-confidence(charisma)
supporting, recognizing.....10 behaviors Source: Derue et al. (2011) An integrated model of leader traits, behavior and effective ness Yukl et al.(2002, 2006) 3 meta-category dimensions of leadership:
change-oriented negative correlation between turnover rate and consideration
positive correlation between turnover rate and structure turnover rate VS leadership behavior Grievance VS leadership behavior 2 situations that employees are least possible to quit :
high consideration + low structure
medium consideration + high structure grievance highest grievance: low consideration + low structure

lowest grievance: high consideration + low structure Self-sacrifice Cremer & Knippenberg leadership effectiveness self-confidence (antecedent of charisma) collective identification A: self sacrifice + self-confidence
B: self sacrifice + lack self-confidence
C: self benefit + self-confidence
D: self benefit + lackself-confidence grievance low consideration is more critical than high structure consideration is the dominant factor 4 versions of questionnaires : A B C and D
3 questions with 2 subquestions (a b)

Fill out the questionnaire.
add all the numbers with your partners who answer the same version as you.
calculate the average numbers of each question(1,2 and 3) and draw them on the whiteboard. after controlling the collective identification 1. A &B C & D A 5 1 : charisma
2: collective identity
3: effectiveness 1950s Hemphill & Coons Hapin & Winer Mann
Bower & Seashore 1960s Fiedler
Hersey & Blanchard
Kerr & Jemier 1970s 1980s Bass
Bass & Aviold 1990s after 2000 Yukel
Judge et al.
Derue et al. consideration & structure transformational & transactional meta analysis Leader behavior & LMX relations-oriented task-oriented change-oriented LMX is influenced primarily by relations-oriented behaviors, rather than by the inspirational and charismatic behaviors emphasized in transformational leadership theory. do you have the same feeling in your personal experience? Break time contingency theory
path-goal theory Path-Goal Theory House & Mitchell leader influence the subordinates' perceptions of their work goals, personal goals and paths to goal attainment. Directive



Participative ambiguous

stressful frustrating or dissatisfying

ambiguous, non-repetitive (high standard performance)

ego-involved and ambiguous Leadership
behaviors Task types Task :
3-D display for the theme of Harry Potter as a commercial for Disneyland in Orlando
project managers and their teams are separated what kinds of leadership behaviors were used or should be used in this case? Any question?
Any comments? project managers team members situation favorableness leader
behavior Leader traits Vs Leader behavior? Source: Derue et al. (2011) which is more important to predict leadership effectiveness?

In Hypothesis 8,we predicted leader behaviors would be more predictive of leadership effectiveness than leader traits.

For group performance, leader behaviors account for 62.4% of total explained R2. Overall, leader traits and behaviors explain 31% of the variance in group performance. leadership training? "Newport, after surveying 121 large companies, conclude that not one of the companies that the leadership training for their middle management had actually improved performance." --Fiedler(1972) Antonakis, J., B. J. Avolio, et al. (2003). "Context and leadership: an examination of the nine-factor full-range leadership theory using the Multifactor Leadership

Questionnaire." The Leadership Quarterly 14(3): 261-295.

Bowers, D. G. (1966). "Predicting Organizational Effectiveness With a Four-Factor Theory of Leadership." Administrative Science Quaterly 11.238-263

Burke, C. S., K. C. Stagl, et al. (2006). "What type of leadership behaviors are functional in teams? A meta-analysis." The Leadership Quarterly 17(3): 288-307.

Cremer, D. D. and D. v. Knippenberg (2004). "Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader self-confidence." Organizational

Behavior and Human Decision Processes 95(2): 140-155.

De Cremer, D., D. M. Mayer, et al. (2009). "When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers' prevention focus." The Journal

of applied psychology 94(4): 887-899.

De Cremer, D., D. van Knippenberg, et al. (2006). "Self-sacrificial leadership and follower self-esteem: When collective identification matters." Group Dynamics:

Theory, Research, and Practice 10(3): 233-245.

Delbecq, A., R. J. House, et al. (2012). "Implicit Motives, Leadership, and Follower Outcomes: An Empirical Test of CEOs." Journal of Leadership & Organizational

Studies 20(1): 7-24.

Derue, D. S. (2011). "Trait and behavioral theories of leadership A meta-analytic test of their relative validity." Personnal Phycology 64.

Frey, D., S. Braun, et al. (2012). "Despite Leaders’ Good Intentions?" Zeitschrift für Psychologie 220(4): 241-250.

Gang, W., I. S. Oh, et al. (2011). "Transformational Leadership and Performance Across Criteria and Levels: A Meta-Analytic Review of 25 Years of Research." Group &

Organization Management 36(2): 223-270.

Holtz, B. C. and C. M. Harold (2013). "Effects of leadership consideration and structure on employee perceptions of justice and counterproductive work behavior."

Journal of Organizational Behavior:

Joo, B. K. (2011). "Leader-Member Exchange Quality and In-Role Job Performance: The Moderating Role of Learning Organization Culture." Journal of Leadership &

Organizational Studies 19(1): 25-34.

Judge, T. A., R. F. Piccolo, et al. (2004). "The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research." The Journal of applied

psychology 89(1): 36-51.

Lambert, L. S., B. J. Tepper, et al. (2012). "Forgotten but not gone: an examination of fit between leader consideration and initiating structure needed and received."

The Journal of applied psychology 97(5): 913-930.

Perry, S. J., L. A. Witt, et al. (2010). "The downside of goal-focused leadership: the role of personality in subordinate exhaustion." The Journal of applied

psychology 95(6): 1145-1153.

van Knippenberg, B. and D. van Knippenberg (2005). "Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: the moderating role of leader prototypicality." The Journal of

applied psychology 90(1): 25-37.

Vroom, V. H. and A. G. Jago (2007). "The role of the situation in leadership." The American psychologist 62(1): 17-24; discussion 43-17.

Yukl, G., M. O'Donnell, et al. (2009). "Influence of leader behaviors on the leader-member exchange relationship." Journal of Managerial Psychology 24(4): 289-299. Zip Out Break experiences?
self-assessment in chapter 8? Fiedler
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