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Prezi 20 Chapter 24 Modernity & the Road to War

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tim hudenburg

on 1 November 2016

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Transcript of Prezi 20 Chapter 24 Modernity & the Road to War

Chapter 24 Modernity & the Road to War
(1890-1914)

Edvard Munch,
The Scream
(1893)
Torments of Modernity
Public Debate over Private Life
Break from social norms
increasing number people --> comfortable family life
Europe's improved standard of living
Change in gender roles
societal norms: heterosexual marriage + women's domestic role (wife + mother) under attack by "forces of modernity"
falling birthrate, rising divorce rate, growing activism for marriage
accusations these changes endangering national health
contributed --> rising social tensions
challenged so many traditional ideas
Freud + other scientists tried --> be dispassionate
studies of sexuality
tried --> formulate treatments for "modern ailments"
afflicted "Wolf-Man"
Stress of modernity & A Great War looms....
Population Pressure
Increase of 23 million people in 40 years
Denmark doubled in population
Birthrate decreased & Increase in birth control
Health improved
Reforming Marriage
Eugenics: a set of ideas about producing superior people through selective breeding (lower types equivalent to orangutans - idea of Social Darwinism)
Allow women to keep wages & own property
Allow women guardianship of their own kids
Improve marriage laws to boost birthrate (women move to a more equal position in marriage) legalized divorce.
Many countries provide medical care & child support ( foundation for welfare state)
Choose own spouse (not chosen by parents)
Image by goodtextures: http://fav.me/d2he3r8
New Women, New Men & the Politics of Sexual Identity
Increasing availability of white collar jobs for women
New Woman dressed practically (looser corsets, less petticoats), biked, lived apart from family
Backlash: thought to be the "uglification of Europe)
Havelock Eliss
Sexual Inversion (1896)
: Homosexuality as a 3rd sex (some thought them to be of a higher order because of both female & male characteristics) human identity
Case of Oscar Wilde
1st woman in Italy to earn a medical degree (New Woman)
Founder of the Montessori educational system
Secretly gave birth to illegitimate child
Maria Montessori
Oscar Wilde
Sciences & The Modern Self
Psychology & Psychoanalysis aim to treat everyone, not just the insane
Max Nordau
Degeneration (1892-93)
: over stimulation for individual/national deterioration nervous complaints & bizarre art world = downturn in human species
Social Darwinist remedy for the 'mental decline' was imperial adventure for men & increased childbearing for both sexes to increase men's virility & women's femininity
Sigmund Freud
The Interpretation of Dreams(1900)
: The "Unconscious" is where many desires are hidden from one's rational understanding
Fascinated with non-western medicine
Targeted by Nazis for being a Jew - Escaped Vienna in 1938
Human Psyche :
The Ego
(need to work & survive),
The Id/The Libido
(instincts & sexual energies),
The Superego
( the conscience)
His theory & treatment called psychoanalysis
Oedipus Complex & penis envy
Believed humans are naturally evil; Civilization has negative impacts/repressive on the psyche.
Modernity & the Revolt in Ideas
Towards start of 20th century - Begin to reject traditional artistic forms & long standing beliefs
Albert Einstein & others establish new truths in Physics
Artists & Musicians influenced by advances in sciences, and progress of empire
Blend of scientific & the Irrational, Western & Non-Western styles
Modernism: Revolution in ideas & creative expression
Big Four of changing the world: Darwin, Marx, Freud, & Einstein
The Opposition to Positivism
Late in 19th century - philosophers reject idea that using scientific methods would uncover enduring social laws
Positivism: emphasized the verifiable nature of fundamental laws & motivated attempts to enact legislation based on studies of society
'Human experience has no constant social laws'
Max Weber- sheer # of facts involved in policy making could make decisive action by bureaucrats impossible--a leader
Friedrich Nietzsche - Truth is not certain but a human representation of reality
Decline in absolute truth such as those in religion "God is dead, we have killed him"
Each individual has "the will to power"
ubermensch; and sister switches his attacks from bourgeoisie to Jews
The Revolution in Science
Philosophers questioned traditional science
1896, Antoine Becquerel discovers radioactivity
Madame Curie--polonium & radium & sexism
Max Planck announced quantum theory packets of energy not steady stream
Albert Einstein
Theory of Relativity
light is a wave and a particle
E=mc^2
mass/energy & no vantage points
Modern Art
Conflict between traditional values and new ideas
Artists distanced themselves from classical styles
Incorporate political criticism into art
art nouveaua ("new art")
great commercial success
incorporated Asian design
popular
The Revolt in Music & Dance
Isadore Duncan & creation of modern dance
Najinsky
Igor Stravinsky
Claude Debussey
Puccini
R. Strauss
Arnold Schoenberg
Growing Tensions in Mass Politics
divisive politics and the rise of more radical voices.
The Expanding Power of Labor
Rights for Women & the Battle for Suffrage
fight prostitution
pacificism
right to vote suffrage
Finland first country in Europe to give vote to women 1906
Emmeline Pankhurst & Women's Social & Political Union-->turn violent; hunger strikes
confrontation to gain rights





Emmeline Pankhurst
Militarist suffragette inspires Alice Paul in the US
Liberalism Tested
Anti-Semitism, Nationalism, & Zionism in Mass Politics
Anti-semitism on the rise throughout Europe;
scapegoating from France to Russia
Nicholas II Russian pogroms...Fiddler on the Roof


The Humiliation of Captain Alred Dreyfus
1894 Dreyfus affair; accused of selling secrets to Germany
railroaded justice sent into exile at French Guyana Devil's Island
Zola
J'Accuse

Anti-semitism effective political tool
Anti-semitism in Germany & Austria
Jewish migration to the US (Lower East Side of NYC)
Growth of Zionism Theodor Herzl--move to Palestine





European Imperialism Challenged
dirty Boer War in South Africa 1899-1902
Brits as barbarians; revelations of the ugliness of imperialism
Cecil Rhodes

The Trials of Empire
Africa in 1914
The Russian Empire Threatened
Humiliated by Japanese
Bloody Sunday January 1905
Nicholas II recalls the Duma
unrest in cities & rising violence
labor unrest...primed for revolution
Growing Resistance to Colonial Domination
In China the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 to kick out foreigners and punish pro-Western Chinese; Society of Harmonious Fists
Sun Yat-sen overthrows the Qing Dynasty--Republic of China
The Foreign Pig is Put to Death
Chinese cartoon-->

In India
mounting dissatisfaction with British rule
Muslim League & Indian National Congress

Rise of the Young Turks
in Turkey seek to overthrow Ottoman Sultan in 1908
In Africa brutal suppression of African attempts at independence
Roads to War
M>A>I>N
Militarism
Alliances
Imperialism
Nationalism
rising tensions

Competing Alliances & Clashing Ambitions
Entente Cordial --England & France
Triple Entente--France, Russia & England
Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria, Italy

Wilhelm II seeks more for Germany bellicose
trouble in Morocco
Germania versus pan-Slavisim in Balkans (Powder keg of Europe)

The Race to Arms
increasing military budgets
drafting large armies
dynamite & superior weaponry
artillery & machine gun
dreadnought race
jingoism
The Balkans, 1908-1914
1914: War Erupts
black Hand's Gavrilo Principe kills Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo
Austria with blank check from Germany goes up against Serbia; Russia back Serbia; Guns of August
France backs up Russia; Von Schlieffen plan activated

The Growth in Armaments, 1890-1914
Arrest of the Assassin
Europe at the Outbreak of World War 1, August 1914
CONCLUSION
1899-1902
South African War between Dutch descendants (Boers) and British
1894-1895
Japan defeats China in Sino-Japanese War
1894-1899
Dreyfus Affair exposes anti-Semitism in France
1900
Sigmund Freud,
The Interpretation of Dreams
1901
Irish National Theater established b Maud Gonne and William Butler Yeats; death of Queen Victoria
1903
Emmeline Pankhurst founds Women's Social and Political Union
1904-1905
Japan defeats Russia in Russo-Japanese War
1905
Nicholas II establishes the Duma after revolution erupts in Russia; Albert Einstein publishes his special theory of relativity
1906
Women receive vote in Finland
1907
Pablo Picasso launches cubist painting with
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
1908
Young Turks revolt against rule by sultan in Ottoman Empire
1911-1912
Revolutionaries overthrow Qing dynasty and declare China a republic
1914
Serbian nationalist's assassination of Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife precipitates World War I
Lights will go out across Europe & a generation of Europeans will soon be dead
Irish-Born Writer
Convicted of indecency for having sexual relations with another man
Did serve time in prison; ruined him
Industrialization and urbanization ushered in change
farm families use new machinery; fewer hands needed
city couples begin limiting family size
more reliable contraception
Politicians worry about cause of birthrate drop
"worst" classes will grow in number
less powerful military
Church of England condemns family limiting as "demoralizing to character"
Duchamp
Picasso
Mucha
Brancussi
Giacometti

Munch
de Chirico
Stravinsky & the Rite of Spring
Nijinsky
Cezanne
Braque
Kandinsky
Union gains
Rise of German SPD
Split in socialists: work within system or overthrow it
Lenin--revolutionary vanguard to bring about revolution workers cannot & will not do it themselves; outmaneuvered the mensheviks; rise of anarchists terror & syndicalists general strike & sabotage
von Suttner
welfare programs & socail legislation filter into some Western European countries;
preempt more radical parties
Irish question & Yeats; an Irish way of life; Sinn Fein; Gaelic & Catholic;
Italy caught up in corruption;
to calm country more liberal agenda & manhood suffrage

Boer War 1899-1902
Spanish American War;
US takes up the White Man's Burden
decline of Spanish Empire
race to take more land in Africa
Japan on the march in Asia
defeats China Sino-Japanese War 1894
defeat Russia Russo-Japanese War 1905
TR gets a Nobel Peace prize for ending war
annexes Korea 1910


Stolypin necktie
Stolypin before assassination
Full transcript