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The Evolution of Info Ops, PSYOPs, Public Affairs and Public

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Emanuela Loi

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of The Evolution of Info Ops, PSYOPs, Public Affairs and Public

The Evolution of Info Ops, PSYOPs, Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy in the U.S. military doctrine and the role of 2001 terrorist attacks
Necessities of the U.S.A. in the post Cold War:
First experiences of Info Ops:
Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti (1994-1995) - Information Operations Coordination Committee

Operation Joint Endeavor in Bosnia (1995),
Task Force Eagle - Information Operation
Definition of Information Operations:
Continuous military operations within the MIE that enable, enhance and protect the friendly force's ability to collect, process, and act on information to achieve an advantage across the full range of military operations; IO include interacting with the GIE and the exploiting or denying an adversary's information and decision capabilities.
Offensive Information Operations' Definition:
Involves the integrated use of assigned and supporting capabilites and activities, mutually supported by intelligence, to affect adversary decision makers and achieve or promote specific objectives
Characteristics of the Corpus:
9 documents

12, 298 Types

327,921 Tokens
Word List:
Technologies Terms Frequencies:
1) new threats that used different type of weapons
2) the necessity to confront not only with a domestic but also with a world audience
3) the need to acquire/distribute informations from all around the world
Defensive Information Operations' Definition:
Integrates and coordinates policies and procedures, operations personnel and technology to protect and defend information and information systems
Information Operations
after September 11, 2001
Main points:
IO definition: achieve and maintain Information superiority

Critical Task: collect, control, exploit and defend
“gain” and “exploit”

Information In Warfare

Influence Operations
“attack” and “defend”

Information Warfare

Electronic Warfare Operations;
Network Warfare Operations

Influence Operations:


Electronic and Network Warfare Operations:

NetA, NetD, NS

Point to prove: Change of Attitude,
Sensing agitation into IO sphere

Linguistic Corpus Analysis

Word List (truncated)

Collocates for Information Superiority

Clusters for achieve (truncated)

Clusters for terroris*(truncated)

after the 9/11
December 2010:

Military Information Support Operation

We can observe a increase of Strategic Communication, Civil-Military Operations, Operation Security and Afghanistan
The SC serve to identify and respond to strategic threats through information
CMO “Civil military operations are activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces, governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian population to facilitate military operations.”
OPSEC helps to prevent the adversaries from gaining or exploiting any unclassified information about the operations
The word AFGHANISTAN is not cited once before 9/11.
Words such "adversary", "decision", "information", "intelligence", "propaganda",
refer to a
non - material
There is a strong reference to information and propaganda.
If we look for the word
propaganda, we note that there is a strong reference
to the adversary propaganda (counter - propaganda,
enemy and hostile propaganda)

"Terrorism" before and after 9/11
National security strategies have increased
More emphasis on the Civil Aspects of American missions: consent of the host populations.
The increase use of OPSEC could be linked with the preventive war under the Bush administration.
Obviously the military narrative starts to talk about Afghanistan, terrorism, taliban; this, even though the already cited terrorist attacks occurred before 9/11.
PSYOP are operations planned to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning and, ultimately, the behaviour of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. The purpose of PSYOP is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes and part of the broad range of US political military economic and informational activities. When properly employed, PSYOP can lower the morale and reduce the efficiency of enemy forces and could create dissidence and disaffection with their ranks.

PSYOP before 9/11

Strategic PSYOP
Operational PSYOP
Tactical PSYOP
Consolidation PSYOP

Diffusion: radio, television, face to face communication, loudspeaker, dissemination of leaflets

PSYOP Categories and PSYOP Diffusion

Choice the audience: Groups, Categories, Aggregates
Support for PSYOP operation: Intelligence, Counterintelligence, Command Control Communication and Computer System, Logistic
PSYOP plan: Research and Analysis, Development, Production Requirements, Dissemination Plan

Essential Elements for a PSYOP’s Success

Action Program

Product Program

Action and Product Program

PSYOP Program

This word list shows how “PSYOP support military operation” and we can affirm through the phrase “PSYOP are an integral part of military operation” (US JP doctrine for joint psychological operations 1996)

Linguistic Corpus Analysis

New threats

Religion was not considered a threat before 9/11 and we can see like the words
closer to religion were features of the people. Moreover the word Muslim in the
corpus appears one time and I do not believe the we can consider it as a threat.

Clusters and Collocate for religio* Concordance to Muslim

Analyzing the Corpus, we can suppose that in the period examined, there was a specific adversary how in the period after 9/11

A generic threat

Public affairs fulfills the Army's obligation to keep the American people and the Army informed, and help to establish the conditions that lead to confidence in America's Army and its readiness to conduct operations in peacetime, conflict and war
Information as a competitive weapon
"Global Information Battlefield"

Gain information superiority, counter adversary's propaganda, engage communities

Monitor and understand public opinion, explain the context of events, communicate the Army's perspective
Corpus analysis: Information Superiority
Information superiority
before 2001
Information superiority
after 2001
Keyword list: the emerging role of media and the policy of embedment
"Propaganda has no place in Dod PA programs"

New terms introduced after 2001:
- Strategic Communication

- Community engagement
Public affairs have a responsibility
The true challenge for PA operations after 2001 is to maintain public support and to establish the conditions that lead to confidence in the Army, providing accurate and
information in a growing (inter)connected world.
“Public diplomacy are those overt international
public information activities of the
U.S government designed to promote U.S foreign policy objectives by seeking to understand, inform, influence foreign audiences and opinion makers and by broadering the dialogue between America citizens and institutions and their counterparts abroad”




New context
Age of global media
Internet revolution
Involves interaction with government, individuals, NGOs
Inclusive and multilevel approach
public engagement



After the WW II, PD was used to influence foreign audiences
Up to the '90 → Cold War, the U.S defence strategy was structurally transformed
War on terrorism, remplaced the Cold War
9/11 attacks: safety and security was touched
Necessity to innovate U.S government system


New concrete programs
Transparency & inclusive approach
Role amplified and more specific
Multilevel participation
Reconquired U.S and foreign trust
Influenced U.S political decisional makers
Strategic communication
AFTER 9/11


The great PD's turn
Budget investment
Reestablished relationships with foreign partner and public opinion
PD's role was amplified
Program and strategies implementation
Engage with citizens, ONG's, private and public groups
Promotion of dialogue


American Public Diplomacy should better understand U.S needs and foreign people's perception to guarantee a better future strategy and perspectives.


Comparisons between:
We can observe that the word hacker is close to criminals and insiders and it is far from the word foreign. So we can deduce that in this case the threat was inside the USA not in other countries.
In conclusion
Collocates for information
The present work attempts to investigate the changes occurred in the American military doctrine
as far as Info Ops, PSYOPS, Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy from 1996 to 2013 are concerned.
Group 4: Bolognesi Martina, Cadeddu Silvia, Colombo Marco, Dubois Nicole, Loi Emanuela, Loi Stefano
Thank you kindly for listening!
Purpose: Investigate possible evolutions of the recent American military doctrine.
Elements of change: growing role of the media, evolution of communication and information technologies
The 9/11 attack boosted this changes and shaked the American's sense of security
Need to diversify the strategy: new approach
Full transcript