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Persuasion and Propaganda
Transcript of Persuasion and Propaganda
Strategies and techniques used to persuade
Not meeting requirements:
*Information, esp. of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view.
Academic arguments should....
be fair, balanced,
to find the truth.
Assertion- a statement expressing your opinion or claim (also, referred to as a thesis)
Evidence- specific support through facts, figures, examples, details, etc...
Foundations of Solid Argumentation
Foundation for Argumentation:
Ex: Reelect John Doe for mayor because he is experienced and has lowered the unemployment rate in our area from 10.1% to 6.3% and reduced the crime rate in our area by 23%.
LOGOS - appeal to reasoning/logic
appeals to reason and the brain, rather than the heart
uses logic, facts, statistics, hard evidence, etc.
Ex: Vote for John Doe because he is tough on law and order, so you and your family won't have to live in fear.
PATHOS- appeal to emotion
appeals to a person's emotions to get a point across, often used in commercials and political speeches
Ex: Vote for John Doe for mayor because he is an active member in the community and a church goer. He volunteers at the homeless shelter every Saturday.
ETHOS- appeal to ethics
appeals to the speaker's credibility and trustworthiness or your sense of right and wrong
seems logical and factual but is really faulty reasoning
*false or misleading
a statement so broad that it cannot possibly be true
No one will ever like the new schedule.
All rich people are snobs.
Teenagers are so lazy.
based upon a metaphor which asserts
that if you take one step down it will
be a slippery slope... a chain reaction
If I don't get those new shoes, no one will like me, I will have to do drugs to fit in, I will drop out of college, and work at Chuck-E Cheese for the rest of my life!!!!!!!!!!!
Approving this economic plan will lead to higher unemployment, increasing welfare recipients and creating a nation of victims.
a way of getting people to reject someone's ideas by verbally attacking the person's character or past. People who use this strategy fail to address what's really important.... the ideas
*similar to name calling
Girl: "I don't like when you do that."
Boy: "I don't like your face."
The principal is a cruel dictator because he/she won't extend lunch.
A prosecutor asks the judge to not admit the testimony of a burglar because burglars are not trustworthy.
Persuade everyone to join in and do the same thing.
Why aren't you eating Super Snacks? They are the new way to snack!
The other schools have longer lunches, so should we!
IN CROWD/SNOB APPEAL
targets those people who want to be different from everyone else and be superior
shows a popular celebrity (with authority on the product), expert, or regular/average person promoting a product.
Dr. Edward Snow- "In the beginning, I was skeptical about using spray on hair. But fantastic results, case after case, helped me build confidence in this highly effective technology."
*Extension of Ethos, Pathos Logos
-With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right. (Abraham Lincoln)
- In the coal mines of Alabama they worked, and in the coal mines of Alabama they sweated.
repeating a grammatical structure
-If practice makes perfect, and no one's perfect, then why practice?
-How would you feel if your little brother was being bullied?
asking questions with obvious answers
draws audience in
Emotional Appeal: 3 Major Types
Purpose: to convince a reader, listener, or viewer to act, think, or feel a certain way.
restating the same idea using the same words or phrase so that the idea becomes engrained.
-"The war is inevitable-and let it come! I repeat it, let it come!" (Patrick Henry)
-"Free at last, free at last, thank God almighty we are free at last." (MLK Jr.)
APEAL to PITY/SYMPATHY
APPEAL to FEAR
Intended to make you laugh so that you transfer that emotion to the product
You feel good about the product
APPEAL to HUMOR
Pity is a very effective appeal in order to secure donations of money or to purchase a product because they will contribute to a cause.
Intended to target your fears and trepidations-scare you into an action
I did this.
Make a Note
Springboard, P. 184
*Do SB - p. 177