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DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS

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Dameria Sidabalok

on 11 October 2013

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Transcript of DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS

DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
According to place/point of articulation
Bilabial : the two lips are the primary articulators
e.g. : b, p, m, w.
Labio-dental : the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth
e.g. : f, v.
Dental : the tongue tip and rims articulate with the upper teeth
e.g. : Ɵ, ð.
Alveolar : the blade, or tip an blade, of the tongue articulate with the alveolar ridge.
e.g. : t, d, l, n, s, z.
Post-alveolar : the tip (and rims) of the tongue articulate with the rear part of the alveolar ridge.
e.g. : r.
The consonants, according to the position of the vocal cords, are divided into:
1. voiceless : p, t, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ, Ɵ, h.
2. voice : the rest of the consonants

Palate – alveolar : the blade, or the tip and blade, of the tongue articulate with the alveolar ridge and there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate.
e.g. : ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ.
Palatal : the front of the tongue articulates with the hard palate.
e.g. : j.
Velar : the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate.
e.g. : k, g, ŋ.
Glottal : an obstruction, or a narrowing causing friction but not vibration, between the vocal cords.
e.g. : h.
according to the manner of articulation
1. complete closure
plosive : a complete closure at some point in the vocal tract, behind which the air pressure builds up and can be released explosively.
e.g. : p, b, t, d, k, g.
affricate : a complete closure at some point in the mouth, behind which the air pressure builds up; the separation of organs is slow compare with that of a plosive, so that friction is a characteristic second element of the sound.
e.g. : tʃ, dʒ
nasal : a complete closure at some point in the mouth but the soft palate being lowered the air escapes through the nose.
e.g. : m, n, ŋ.
The vowel
A description of vowel-like sounds must note:
The position of the soft palate – raised for oral vowels, lowered for nasalized vowels;
The kind of aperture formed by the lips – degrees of spreading or rounding;
The part of tongue, which is raised, and the degree of raising.
ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS:
1. consonants
2. vowels

There are 24 consonants in English:
2. Intermittent closure:
Roll : a series of rapid intermittent closures or taps made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface.
e.g. : r (the tongue tip taps against the alveolar ridge)

3. partial closure:
Lateral : a partial closure is made at some point in the mouth, the air-stream being allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact.
e.g. : l
4. narrowing
Fricative : two organs approximate to such an extent that the airstream passes through them with friction.
e.g. : f, v, ʃ, ʒ, s, z, Ɵ, ð, h.

5. glides:
Semi-vowel : they are usually included in the consonantal category on functional grounds, but from the point of view of phonetic description, they are more properly treated as vowel glides.
e.g. : w, j.
Essential factors to be included in any classificatory chart refer to:
1. The place of articulation
2. The manner of articulator
3. The presence or absence of voice
4. The position of the soft palate
There are 12 cardinal vowels in English
:
GLIDING VOWELS
There are 9 diphthongs:
Full transcript