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DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
Transcript of DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
According to place/point of articulation
Bilabial : the two lips are the primary articulators
e.g. : b, p, m, w.
Labio-dental : the lower lip articulates with the upper teeth
e.g. : f, v.
Dental : the tongue tip and rims articulate with the upper teeth
e.g. : Ɵ, ð.
Alveolar : the blade, or tip an blade, of the tongue articulate with the alveolar ridge.
e.g. : t, d, l, n, s, z.
Post-alveolar : the tip (and rims) of the tongue articulate with the rear part of the alveolar ridge.
e.g. : r.
The consonants, according to the position of the vocal cords, are divided into:
1. voiceless : p, t, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ, Ɵ, h.
2. voice : the rest of the consonants
Palate – alveolar : the blade, or the tip and blade, of the tongue articulate with the alveolar ridge and there is at the same time a raising of the front of the tongue towards the hard palate.
e.g. : ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ.
Palatal : the front of the tongue articulates with the hard palate.
e.g. : j.
Velar : the back of the tongue articulates with the soft palate.
e.g. : k, g, ŋ.
Glottal : an obstruction, or a narrowing causing friction but not vibration, between the vocal cords.
e.g. : h.
according to the manner of articulation
1. complete closure
plosive : a complete closure at some point in the vocal tract, behind which the air pressure builds up and can be released explosively.
e.g. : p, b, t, d, k, g.
affricate : a complete closure at some point in the mouth, behind which the air pressure builds up; the separation of organs is slow compare with that of a plosive, so that friction is a characteristic second element of the sound.
e.g. : tʃ, dʒ
nasal : a complete closure at some point in the mouth but the soft palate being lowered the air escapes through the nose.
e.g. : m, n, ŋ.
A description of vowel-like sounds must note:
The position of the soft palate – raised for oral vowels, lowered for nasalized vowels;
The kind of aperture formed by the lips – degrees of spreading or rounding;
The part of tongue, which is raised, and the degree of raising.
ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS:
There are 24 consonants in English:
2. Intermittent closure:
Roll : a series of rapid intermittent closures or taps made by a flexible organ on a firmer surface.
e.g. : r (the tongue tip taps against the alveolar ridge)
3. partial closure:
Lateral : a partial closure is made at some point in the mouth, the air-stream being allowed to escape on one or both sides of the contact.
e.g. : l
Fricative : two organs approximate to such an extent that the airstream passes through them with friction.
e.g. : f, v, ʃ, ʒ, s, z, Ɵ, ð, h.
Semi-vowel : they are usually included in the consonantal category on functional grounds, but from the point of view of phonetic description, they are more properly treated as vowel glides.
e.g. : w, j.
Essential factors to be included in any classificatory chart refer to:
1. The place of articulation
2. The manner of articulator
3. The presence or absence of voice
4. The position of the soft palate
There are 12 cardinal vowels in English
There are 9 diphthongs: