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Group 4 project

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Lea Ciric

on 12 November 2013

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Transcript of Group 4 project

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Group 4 project
Acid rain, what is it?
"Acid rain" is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids.
Cars as air pollutants
Union of Concerned Scientists said that electric vehicles in the United States save money on fuel and are less polluting than most gasoline-powered vehicles, even in places where electricity is made by burning coal.
What happens up there?
All rain water is naturally acidic owing to the presence of dissolved carbon dioxide which reacts with water to form carbonic acid: CO2(g) + H2O(l)      H2CO3 (aq)

Carbonic acid is a weak acid
H2CO3 (aq)   H+ (aq) + HCO3- (aq)

pH of rainwater is 5,6

Effects of Acid Rain - Forests
How did scientists came to the conclusion that acid rain affects forests?
+ slowed growth of trees
+ leaves turn brown
+ needles turn brown
+ leaves fall off of the trees

Affects of acid rains on humans
- Acid rain looks, feels, and tastes just like clean rain.
- pollutants that cause acid rain- sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)
- sulfate and nitrate particels- tranrported long distance by winds and ingaled deep into people's lungs.

Technology and acid rains?
Do computers help in formation of acid rains?
How technology helps in dealing with acid rains?
Air pollution

What can be done?
- choose a cleaner vehicle
- choose a more fuel efficient vehicle
- drive fewer miles
- refuel wisely
Internal combustion engine
The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (normally a fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber, that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
These engines have appeared in transport in almost all vehicles
How it works?
- Intake stroke
- Compression
- Explosion
- Exhaustion
How to decrease NO?
+ Three-way catalyst
+ Lean-burn engines
How to decrease SO2?
+ Alkalinescrubbin
+ Fluidized-bed combustion
The gas concentration in rain water
Excessive amount of SO2 and NO
make the rain’s pH drop below pH 5,6

Nitrogen oxides
Excessive amount of SO2 and NO make the rain’s
pH drop below pH 5,6

Motor vehicles as the main source
Under conditions of high temperatures (around 1500 °C in automobile engines), nitrogen and oxygen in the air react to form nitrogen monoxide:
N2 (g) + O2 2NO (g)

Made naturally from decomposition of nitrogen containing compounds by bacterial action in soil and from lightning storms:
N2 (g) + O2 2NO (g)

Sulfur oxides
Natural: volcanoes, rotting vegetables

Anthropogenic: burning of sulfur-containing fossil fuels like coal.
Coal also releases CO2, which a major pollutant in forming acid rain.

S(s) + O2 (g) SO2 (g)

From smelting plants which oxidize sulfate ores to metal oxides:

Cu2S (s) + 2O2 (g) 2CuO (s) + SO2 (g)

How are acid rains formed?
H2O(l) + SO2(g) H2SO3(aq)
2SO2 (g) + O2g) SO3(g)
H2O(l) + SO3(g) H2SO4(aq)

2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g)
H2O(l) + 2NO2(g) HNO2(aq)+HNO3(aq)
2H2O(l) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) 4HNO3(aq)
Effect on Materials
Marble and limestone forms of calcium carbonate.
CaCO3 (s) + H2SO4(aq) CaSO4 (s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

Calcium sulfate is more soluble than calcium carbonate so it washes of the limestone. It has a greater molar volume so it causes expansion and stress in the stonework.

Acid rain corrodes metals. They form salts
Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq) FeSO (aq) + H2 (g)
Effect on Plants
Washes out important nutrients like Mg2+ , Ca, 2+K+ from soil
Releases dangerous Al3+ from rocks into soil
Mg2+ reduction = reduction in chlorophyll
Al3+ damages roots

Effects on Water
Al3+ dissolves into the lakes and river, interferes with fishes’ ability to breathe
Al(OH)3 (s) + 3H+ (aq) Al 3+ (aq) + 3H2O (l)

Nitric acid causes that plants grow more than normal

Effects on Humans
Pb2+, Cu2+ released from pipes and Al3+ released from rock (Alzheimer's)

How to reduce nitrogen oxide levels?
-Lean-burn engines which use an air: fuel ratio of 18:1
-Three- way catalytic converters
2CO (g) + 2NO (g) 2CO2 (g) + N2 (g)
-Exhaust gas recirculation

How to reduce sulfur dioxide levels?
Precumbustion methods:
-removing metal sulfide containing sulfur from coal
Alkaline scrubbing: alkaline mixture sprayed downwards into exhaust gasses
Fluidized combustion method
CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
CaO(s) + SO2(g) + O2(g) CaSO3 (s)
2CaO (s) + 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2CaSO4 (s)

Brown, Ford Catrin, Mike. Higher Level Chemistry: Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
"Acid Rain." Acid Rain. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013.
"Got Calcium? Mineral Key to Restoring Acid Rain-damaged Forests." UC Berkeley NewsCenter. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://newscenter.berkeley.edu/2013/09/19/calcium-helps-acid-rain-damaged-forest/>.
"Effects of Acid Rain." Effects of Acid Rain. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www2.gsu.edu/~mstnrhx/EnviroBio Projects/AcidRain/effects.html>.
"How Does Acid Rain Affect Terrestrial Ecosystems? - Curiosity." Curiosity. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://curiosity.discovery.com/question/acid-rain-affect-terrestrial-ecosystem>

Does it really kill forests?
How does acid rain actually affect trees?
+ has an effect on the soil from which tree is taking in essential nutrients
+ has a direct effect on the nutrients covering up the leaves of the tree
+ leaves are then not able to absorb energy from the Sun
+ since they are not able to absorb energy, it is not possible for the tree to undertake the process of photosynthesis

What happens next?
+ trees are weak
+ can be easily attacked by:
>cold weather
- which kill trees ultimately

+ other plants are also affected by acid rain

+ it is recorded that forests damaged by acid rain are most common in Eastern Europe

+ the pollutants may also inhibit trees’ ability to reproduce

Is there a solution for this problem?
CALCIUM- mineral key to restoring acid rain-damaged forests

Effects of acid rain on surface waters and
aquatic animals
+ Water environments: streames, lakes and marshes
+ Acid rain falls from forests, roads, fields, buildings and flows into water
+ pH of most lakes is between 6 to 8

+ “Buffering capacity”- low
+ Water and surrouding incapable of neutralizing acid rain
+ Aluminum released
+ Low pH and Aluminum = Highly toxic

- National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) investigation
- Chronic acidity affects
- 75% lakes and 50% streams-acid rain caused acidity
- Harms or kills fish and reduces the population numbers
- Decrease in biodiversity
- pH decrease=aluminum level increase

Fish may not be killed but can lead to lower body weight and smaller size
Competition for habitat and food

Ecosystem and food web affected

Effect of Nitrogen found in acid rain
+ Takes big part in episodic acidification
+ Causes eutrophication of water
+ Symptomps: blooms of algae, change in health of fish and shellfish,
decrease in amount of seagrass beds and changes in food webs
+ Impact on human population

"Acid Rain." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C007231/effect1.htm>. EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.epa.gov/.../education/site_students/foodweb.html>. "Acid Rain." Acid Rain. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://seldonville.wordpress.com/> "Extinction - Causes." Extinction - Causes. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.uwec.edu/jolhm/eh4/extinction/CausesLink.html>. http://www.lakescientist.com/.../acid-rain.html" Acid Rain." Lake Scientist. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.lakescientist.com/.../acid-rain.html>. "Effects of Acid Rain - Surface Waters and Aquatic Animals." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/effects/surface_water.html>.
- asthma or chronic bronchitis make it hard for people to breathe.
- nitrogen oxides cause ground-level ozone.
- ground-level ozone causes respiratory problems
- swimming in an acidic lake or walking in an acidic puddle is
no more harmful to people than swimming or walking in clean water.

- More dangerous to older people and people with heart problems.
- Goes into vegatables and fruit and animals-
by eating we can get very sick.
- Acid Rain Program- goal: to reduce levels of fine sulfate and nitrate particles.

34% of the electricity used by Amazon comes from coal-generated power and 30% from nuclear, while Microsoft uses 39% coal power and 26% nuclear
What do Microsoft and Amazon use to power their cloud-computing services?
+ Cloud computing means using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data.

+ Every time you upload a picture, song, video, or anything else, that digital information has to be stored somewhere, and cloud-computing data centers—typically giant buildings with massive computer servers that require loads of electricity to operate—are where it all goes.
This increases risk of acid rains!
How technology helps?
Computers track course of acid rain
+ computers track pollutants by modeling physical and chemical atmospheric conditions.

Scientists don't know how well models can predict the pollution routes, although they can simulate previous pollution events accurately
New models use much more data.
But this means greatly increased computer costs: tracing the movement of one polluted air mass may cost thousands of dollars.

Presentation done by:
Group 5
Chemistry: Samra Husremović
Biology: Neira Babović, Dino-Luka Pirnat and Berina-Emina Kadić
Physics: Elvedina Omerhodžić and Melika Softić
Computer technology: Lea Ćirić and Haris Silajdžić
Full transcript