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Unit 2: Part 2 A Country with a Future
Transcript of Unit 2: Part 2 A Country with a Future
Part II: 1825 1898
Period 2: 1825 - 1868
Sugar, Slavery and Despotism
Sugar industry dominates from 1825 - 1850
Commercial relations with the United States dominates
Peak of the slave trade 1825 - 1835
Increasing foreign immigration
Régimen de la Libreta - Notebook Regime
Despotic colonial government: tough on government opponents and privileges to peninsular minorities
Grito de Lares - Rebellion
Continuation of the forging of a new colonial pact
1824 - 1898
Economy: Rapid expansion of an export economy
the best coastal lands for sugar and in the interior for coffee and tobacco
Population: rapid and constant growth:
European free immigration and African slaves
Social: Gradually becomes a class society based on income
Politics: Modern movements and political parties
Cultural: The Puerto Rican cultural personality is defined
Sugar industry, melao and rum
Haciendas multiplied and some grew in size and capacity - even 500 acres (cuerdas)
trapiches de bueyes: mills moved by oxen
trapiches de vapor - 20 - 25 most advanced
trapiches de viento - windmills - least
Where? Coastal Plains
Increased on original region - from Loiza to Arecibo
Transformed region of south and west: Ponce , Guayama and Mayaguez: 54% by 1828
By 1850: PR was the second producer of sugar in the Caribbean (after Cuba) and one of the ten greatest producers in the world.
Sugar affected our commercial relations -
Real Cédula de Gracias - opened island ports to friendly nations - trade between PR and US will increase progressively.
Even before 1850 US bought almost 3/4 of our sugar crop
US became the country with the most commercial importance
Although sugar was our most important crop most of the century - Spain never bought a significant part of this crop
PR Became a Double Dependency State: Political dependency on Spain, Economic dependency on U.S. Trade
From 1825 to 1835 : peak of the slave trade
About 60,000 to 80,000 "bozales" or slaves directly from Africa
Since 1820 it was illegal because of an international agreement with Great Britain
Spanish government chose to ignore the prohibition and continued permitting it.
Inhuman treatment of slaves, suicide, resistance and rebellions were common
by 1845 slave trade ended in PR
high prices for slaves
Lower prices for sugar
Spanish authorities policies to force the free labor to work solving the problems of lack of "hands"
Work in the Fields of the haciendas was difficult but it was even worst in the Sugar refineries – tiring and dangerous
After - 1815: Real Cédula de Gracias & because of the sugar industry impulse
Americans, French, Germans, Italians, Corsicans, Dutch, British, Scots
European colonies in the Lesser Antilles - Danish St. Thomas, Dutch Curacao, British and French islands
Emigrations from Venezuela, Sto. Domingo
Women: some came with their fathers or husbands, some were single: especially blacks or mulattoes from the neighboring islands - possibly for domestic jobs - cooks, launderers, seamstresses & servants
From all social classes:
Wealthy whites who became prominent merchants or hacendados
Most were workers: Blacks and mulattoes: young and unmarried - - skilled: carpenters, coopers, stewards, bakers, tailors and launderers
Effects: enriched our culture, impulse to commerce and urban centers (Ponce)
They had to show the libretas once a month in the municipaliy.
Prohibited the agregados
Jornaleros had to move to the towns.
Although it increased the number of workers . . . Jornaleros did anything not to work in ingenios.
How did it work?
Reactions in the island:
Landowners liked it.
Enlightened sectors of Criollos opposed it.
Not good for agricultural development:
Kept labor cheap.
No need to modernize
Labor was not as productive.
Despotic Authoritarian Colonial governments
Centralization in the Administration -belonged to the Governor - municipal autonomy lost
Unlimited power to this military governors
Persecution of all liberals - reformists or separatists
Diversion of a very large part of the island rents, collected through taxes to the Spanish treasure - to be used in things that had nothing to do with the island
The use of part of that money for paying the salaries of the peninsulares who occupied the government jobs
Extreme militarization of the island - after loosing in Latin America many officers and troops will be stationed in the island
Censorship - Any information considered seditious - "anti - Spanish"
Closing of newspaper El Ponceño for publishing a poem "Agueybana el Bravo"
backwardness in Education - even though Liberals and some governors wanted to improve education - there were never enough funds for more schools or more teachers outside the most important towns
Rafael Cordero - Cigar maker - El maestro Rafael -
Padre Rufo Manuel Fernández
Political malaise after Spain fails again in recognizing the needs of the colonies in the Junta Informativa. ****
Economic hardships after end of U.S. Civil War:
Sugar prices fell, contraction of credit, hurricane, earthquakes
Government presses for collection of taxes
Hacendados loosing land
Social conflicts: exploitation of the slaves, free workers - libreta law, smallholders, indebted landowners. Conflicts between the hacendados (coffee) and the peninsulares merchants that exploited them.
What were the plans?
Puerto Rican Revolutionary Committee
Revolutionary Cells were established: Mayagüez, Lares, Camuy, & Pepino.
Planned to start in Camuy Sept. 29 along with a Cuban Revolt - Grito de Yara
Spanish authorities heard of conspiracy & searched house of leader of Camuy finding evidence of plans.
Lares decides to start revolution the 23rd & informs Mayagüez & Pepino
Manuel Rojas – coffee hacendado – led around 600 armed with shotguns, revolvers, & machetes to Lares.
Took town, arrested municipal authorities & Spanish merchants, Proclaimed Republic of Puerto Rico, Set up a Provisional government, Next morning: Church – Te Deum
Marched to Pepino hoping to take it with help of cell there, but Authorities had prepared for this and were waiting.
Revolutionaries fell back to Lares where Matías Bruckman – hacendado from Mayagüez had joined.
Leaders decided on guerrilla operation in mountains & wait for arms from Betances.
El Telégrafo – boat with arms was confiscated in Saint Thomas
Arrests around the island prevented other uprisings
Régimen de la Libreta: Notebook or Passbook regime
Problem: Free labor did not want to work in plantations
Why? Plenty of land – easy food & shelter
1831: Governor Miguel López de Baños
Bando de Policía y Buen Gobierno: Orders all unemployed landless peasants to work on local plantations
1849 – Ley de la Libreta – Governor Juan de la Pezuela:
all workers had to carry the ledger where the employer would record services & how. Severe penalties on those who did not carry them.
Compulsory Labor: Lasted 24 years: 1849 - 1873
Juan de la Pezuela
Dictatorial regime but brought economic growth:
Centralized administration – more efficiency – inspections
Fostered sugar production & plantation economy & slaves
Public works: churches, bridges, roads, Plazas, Municipal Theatre
Improved island defenses & military forces.
Policy of "dance, drink and dice" (baile, botella y baraja), implying that a well entertained population will not think about revolution.
Miguel de la Torre
Governor of the island for 15 years. (1822 – 1837)
Gobierno de las 3 Bs
Maestro Rafael Cordero
Juan Prim y Prats
Black Codes & many arbitrary and cruel laws
Miguel López de Baños
Bando de Policia y Buen Gobierno
Every laborer must work free with the government one day a week or pay a fine
Grito de Lares
Betances: Doctor, abolitionist and leader of Independence movement. Wrote Ten Commandments of Free Men. Lives in Paris as an exile most of this life.
Segundo Ruiz Belvis
Our Representative at the Junta Informativa - Abolitionist and Separatist
Dies in Chile looking for support
Mariana Bracetti – Leader in Lares & made flag
Leader in Lares - In his plantation the rebels met and started the rebellion (Venezuelan)
Leader of the group in Mayaguez that joins the rebellion & dies during el Grito (North American)
Ramón Emeterio Betances
Intellectual leader of the movement. Plans it from exile - Dominican Republic. Gets funds and armaments - boat: El Telegrafo
1812 - 14 : Constitution of 1812 - colonies are provinces
1814 - 1820: Ferdinand VII restores absolutism - colonies loose all rights
1820 - 1823: Constitution of 1812 - liberals dominate Spain - Ferdinand forced to accept Constitutions - back to provinces
1823 - 1836 : colonies have no rights
1837 - 1864: New less liberal constitution is approved in Spain after death of Ferdinand, but the colonies are not included - they promise Leyes especiales - Special laws - - Period of "Forced Peace"
1860s: Representatives of Cuba and Puerto Rico are called to Spain to a Junta Informativa: Inquiry Board - - to discuss what special laws should be established
Puerto Rico sends Diputados or Representatives who will among other things ask for the immediate with or without compensation abolition of slavery and an autonomous government with equal rights as Spanish citizens . . . just unfulfilled promises
Nothing happens - no consequences
In 1527 - first major slave rebellion occurred in Puerto Rico as dozen of slaves fought against the colonist in a brief revolt
By 1873 - 20 slave revolts
From 1795 to 1848: 22 slave conspiracies have been identified by historians.
Only 5 took place during governorship of De la Torre
Repressive Measures of De La Torre: Example:
July 10, 1826 – Ponce: 4 slaves confided on master on conspiracy plot.
Slaves arrested, interrogated, put on trial by military tribunal: 11 sentenced to death & shot in the presence of others who were sentences to work for government in Havana shipyards, or work in shackles on master’s haciendas.
Incident reported on La Gaceta – moralizing on how the peace and tranquility was owed to the prompt effectiveness of gov.
Informers were given their freedom & 25 pesos.
Grito de Lares
551 arrested – 80 died in jail - yellow fever
7 leaders judged in military tribune – condemned to death but commuted to prison & sent to Cadiz
No other prisoner was judged or sentenced.
New Governor declared amnesty
Spanish authorities were more vigilant of anti - Spanish activities but also more sensitive to the public opinion
Why it failed:
Organizational structure and level of political awareness of plotters was rudimentary
although it was headed by foreign hacendados with economic problems it represented the interests of most Puerto Ricans
Slaves – abolition
Free laborers – end of libreta
Farmers - end of extortion & control by the Spanish merchants
Professionals & rentiers – political power
First major concerted effort by Puerto Ricans to radically alter their common situatio
Revolutionary Himn - La Borinqueña Revolucionaria
que han dado la señal!
¡Despierta de ese sueño
que es hora de luchar!
¿A ese llamar patriótico
no arde tu corazón?
¡Ven! Nos será simpático
el ruido del cañón.
. . . . . . . . . .
Lola Rodríguez de Tió
Music by Félix Astol Artés / Francisco Ramírez
y nuestros machetes
nos la dará...
y nuestro machete
nos la dará...
que nos espera ansiosa,
ansiosa la libertad.
La libertad, la libertad!
Scarano, Francisco; Puerto Rico, Una Historia Contemporanea,
Segunda Edicion' McGraw Hill, Mexico 2007
Pico, Fernando; History of Puerto Rico, A Panorama of its
People; Marcus Wiener Publishers, Princeton, 2006
Morales Carrión; Puerto Rico, A Political and Cultural History,
New York, 1983
Dietz, James; Economic History of Puerto Rico, Princeton, New
Third Period: 1869 - 1898
Coffee Plantation boom and Criollo Affirmation
By 1875 : Rise in the international demand of Coffee
Prices went up especially after 1886
The center and west of the Cordillera Central - Coffee zones
By the end of the 1880s - PR was the fourth producer of coffee in Latin America
Exports went from 4,700,000 in 1886 to 14,000,000 by 1896
For 20 years the economic importance of our mountains surpassed the coastal areas.
Population growth in the area - migrants some permanent, others seasonal
Coffee Plantation Workers
Some were the sons or grandsons of the cattle ranchers who had extensive land in the mountains
Others were descendents of the poor peasants that had emigrated in the first half of the century from the coastal areas to the interior looking for a better life... land.
'correcostas'- - only lived in the mountains during the harvest
Change in the economic conditions of the peasant families:
Before: Women and children worked all year in their plots of land either rented or just occupied. Adult women and girls also did domestic labor like sewing, washing cloth and taking care of children.
Now: they also had to work outside their plots/homes: All were potential coffee plantation workers - even 3 years old could pick coffee from the floor or in the lower branches
Women picked and sorted grains like men - only the toughest jobs would be reserved for men
Last three decades of the 19th century - filled with misery and despair for most peasants:
more workers lost their traditional subsistence plots
less food contributed to worst health
Relative abundance during harvest period followed by months of scarcity - when maybe one member of the family could find a menial job ('"çhivos")
Privileged minority benefited from high prices of coffee: plantation owners and merchants from towns in coffee region and port cities
life expectancy for the poor 'jibaro' was not good:
barefoot, ignorant of hygiene measures, lacking basic medical services - died young
Quest for Autonomy
Emergence of Political Parties in Puerto Rico
Since the beginning of the Century: two tendencies:
Conservatives: Civilian and military government employees Influential businessmen - Spaniards mostly - peninsulares - wanted economic changes only
Liberals or Reformists: Majority of professionals, Small farmers, cattlemen, Industrialists & Criollos businessmen, Majority of middle & Lower classes; want political, economic, and social changes - - legal peaceful road.
1870: Two Political Parties
Partido Liberal Reformista
Political assimilation of Island (be a Province of Spain)
Professional and intellectual elites – landed class
Partido Liberal Conservador
Conservatives – incondicionales – Spaniards
Defend the status quo – no changes in political situation
1880s: Elections to a Provincial Assembly (Diputación Provincial) and to municipalities & representatives (Diputados) to the courts - since Reformistas were winning most elections - conservadores convinced Spanish governor to limit the people who could vote. Reformistas divide in two tendencies: defenders of assimilation and those that wanted autonomy
1887: Partido Autonomista Puertorriqueño was founded in Ponce - its leader will be Román Baldorioty de Castro
Partido Autonomista Puertorriqueño
Political identity with Spain & administrative autonomy
Wants Self Government for island – greatest possible liberty , individual rights of men. Decentralization, control of budget, direct taxation, freedom of commerce, industry & education
Since 1885 liberals were adopting this formula and abandoning assimilation as their objective:
needs of the middle professional and artisan class
needs of small and medium size farm owners - especially the coffee farms
complained about: very little democratic participation, excessive centralization of power in the governor, excessive bureaucracy paid by their taxes
Numerous newspapers ( El País, El Clamor del País) were published during this period in the island supporting Autonomy and debating the official newspaper of the conservatives: Boletín Mercantíl
Revolución Gloriosa in Spain
September 18, 1868
Military pronouncement – Juntas formed all over – Queen Isabel II exiled in France
Five years of turmoil: Generals, Cortes, constitution, crown given to Amadeo of Savoy – abdicates in 1873
Brief Spanish Republic
1875 son Alfonso XII was crowned
Events in Spain
Abolition of Slavery
March 22, 1873
Most lasting action of the Republican Period in Spain was the Abolition of slavery
Abolition was implemented without problems -celebrations
Very small impact on agriculture or commerce
3 years contract to employer
Former masters - indemnified
Terrible year 1887
Economic crisis in island - reflecting international crisis.
Aggravating circumstances in PR: commercial monopoly of some merchants (majority "peninsulares" or Spaniards
Liberal criollos will organize secret societies to boycott the businesses of the 'peninsulares': La Boicotizadora, La Torre del Viejo, Los Secos, Los Mojados (Buy only from criollo merchants)
Some violence: looting, fires against some Spanish businesses
In the eyes of the government authorities and the 'incondicionales': the anti - spanish campaign was alarming and they blamed the 'autonomistas'
Governor Romualdo Palacios from his summer home in Aibonito coordinated a series of raids against autonomistas from the region of Juana Diaz and Ponce especially. Dozens of people were tortured by the Guardia Civil - - tortures -
Some arrested were killed (supposedly trying to escape)
Some in despair committed suicide
Baldorioty & other leaders from the Autonomist Party were arrested & some were even beaten up - taken to the dungeons of el Morro
Some conservatives led their own investigations & aggressions against liberal autonomists etc.
The Year of the 'Compontes' 1887
Liberals sent to St. Thomas someone who sent to the only liberal deputy of P.R. – Rafael M. de Labra – to inform the Government in Spain of the abuses - Palacios will be relieved of his command by November.
What made this year so terrible?
Government was violating the same Penal Code that they had established - the only 'crime' of these people had been to be liberals autonomists - (which was legal)
This systematic pattern of abuse by government created panic among the Puerto Ricans and accentuated the defects of the colonial system
Permanent scars - - Spain lost many loyalties in the island.
The Road to the Autonomist Charter - Carta Autonómica
Baldorioty de Castro – sick and impoverished, resigned as leader of Autonomists & dies.
there were differences on the type of autonomy they wanted:
What Ireland was asking for, What Canada had or just flexibility to reach tariff agreements with U.S.
there were differences on to which Spanish party should they make a pact with:
With Republican (Centralists) Party (Labra)
With a party that had a better chance of winning ( liberal monarchical party) – Liberal Fusionists – Luis Muñoz Rivera
Autonomy at last
Feb. 1895 – Cuba had started Second War for Independence
PR separatists in exile join them and even plan for an invasion that would be led by Juan Rius Rivera but give up and continue to press to be included in any negotiations. ]
August 8, 1897 – Spanish Prime Minister is assassinated – Queen Regent Maria Cristina asks Sagasta to head a new cabinet.
Sagasta immediately decides to do what he had promised
Political and Civil rights to Spanish citizens of the island.
Electoral law of 1896 would apply - all Spaniards 25 or older who had their civil rights & were residents for 2 years (not military). Secret ballot
Autonomous regime to Puerto Rico.
Luis Muñoz Rivera
young newspaperman – Barranquitas
Chief promoter of alliance with a party that would promise autonomy to island
La Democracia his newspaper –
campaign supporting a pact with Spanish Liberal Fusionist Party of Práxedes Mateo Sagasta
A commission went to Spain and made a pact with Sagasta: joined their political party in exchange for support of Autonomy if they won (Feb. 1897)
Not everyone in the party in PR was in agreement of the pact:
they did not want to join the Partido Liberal Fusionista of Sagasta because it was a monarchical liberal party and they believed in a republican government
Dr. José Celso Barbosa created the Partido Autonomista Histórico (Ortodoxo) Orthodox Historical Autonomist Party
from Bayamón –
studied Medicine in Michigan –
great admirer of the Republican government of U.S.
José Celso Barbosa
Dr. José Julio Henna, Sotero Figueroa and Roberto H. Todd: Leaders of the Puerto Rican Section of the Cuban Revolutionary Party
Our brief Autonomic government
Spain keeps sovereignty over the islands: they retain military authority, administration of justice, control over diplomatic affairs. Governor is the guardian of the constitution & represents the crown.
Autonomic government had control over internal affairs and over the relations between the island and its commercial partners.
Amending the new government:
Changes could not be made unless it was at the request of the insular parliament.
First Election – March 1898 autonomistas lead by Muñoz Rivera (Liberal Fusionista) win control of cabinet & legislature.
March 1898 : 82, 000 votes for the Fusionistas, 16,000 for the orthodox, 2,000 for the incondicionales - conservatives
Governor General – named by Spain
Cabinet: a President and 5 ministers appointed by governor
Governor has broad powers – law & order, security, appointed judiciary, budget
Cabinet – 3 members selected of majority party in parliament
Administrative Council – (Senate) 15 members –
8 elected ( ½ reelected every 2years)
7 named by governor – had to be native or 4 year resident, a yearly income & no contract with government. Position for life.
Immunity during sessions – except caught in flagranti or treason
House of Representatives
32 elected for 5 years
Met annually – Governor convenes them and could close it but must reopen in 3 months
Originates measures of taxation & credit
Make local laws, control budget, set tariff duties, negotiate commercial treaties with foreign nations, which would be made by government in Spain. Treaties made by Spain that affected island would be submitted to the insular government.
Education, welfare, transportation
Ayuntamientos – local legislature
Education, transportation, health, budget, municipal loans, referendums.
Seating: L. Muñoz Rivera, Mariano Quiñones, Manuel Fernández Juncos; Standing: Juan Hernández López, José Severo Quiñones y Manuel F. Rossy
The end of the Spanish Empire in America
Cuba was still fighting for their independence
February 1898: Explosion of the Maine in the Havana harbor
Who did it?
Who was blamed?
President of the U.S. William McKinley asked Congress to declare war against Spain - April 1898
Spanish - Cuban - American - War
May 12, 1898 Admiral Sampson bombarded San Juan - making the war very real ...
the inauguration of the Autonomic government was postponed to July 17
Eight days later the American army invaded the island: July 25, 1898
According to the Times, "the north end of Morro Castle was in ruins, the Cabras Island fort was silenced, and the San Carlos battery was damaged. Although the Americans suffered only two casualties and seven injuries, the Spanish Governor General of Puerto Rico issued a proclamation saying eight soldiers were killed and 34 wounded as a result of the bombardment of the forts at San Juan."