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Chapter 19-20 Middle East (SW ASIA)
Transcript of Chapter 19-20 Middle East (SW ASIA)
This region sits at the intersection of 3 tectonic plates
The Persian Gulf and Interior of SW ASIA
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers--EXOTIC RIVERS
Climate in SW ASIA
The two most important resources here are oil and water
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Area between the Tigris and Euphrates -- MESOPOTAMIA--earliest known civilizations
HISTORY AND CULTURE
Muhammad (570-632) established ISLAM
5 Pillars of Islam
TESTIMONY-Must acknowledge Allah as the only God
HISTORY AND CULTURE
From the 1500's to early 1900's most of this region was part of the Ottoman Empire.
Oil and gas "fuel" the economies of this region
Saudi Arabia one of worlds leaders
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
Big world influence because of its oil and also
as home to Mecca.
Leader of OPEC
BASICS ABOUT THE REGION
CONSISTS OF ISRAEL, LEBANON, SYRIA, JORDAN, TURKEY, AND CYPRUS
Most of the region is coastal plains
CLIMATES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Mostly Arid, Semi Arid, and Mediterranean Climates
DESERT and STEPPE
A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST
8000B.C. -- groups such as the Hittites, Egyptians, and Persians
1100-1200--Christians from Europe and Muslims fought a series of wars--THE CRUSADES--over JERUSALEM
PALESTINE AND MODERN ISRAEL
Zionism (1800s)--Belief that the Jewish people should have a homeland
Other Cultural Facts
The three major ethnic groups here are ARAB, TURK, and ISRAELI
The KURDS are a small group in Turkey and Iraq that want their own country
Most major cities in this region are divided into Muslim, Christian, Jewish, and Armenian quarters.
The island of Cyprus is also divided with Greeks and Turks, who don’t get along
Culture Traits of this Region
THE REGION TODAY
IRRIGATION Allows this region to have good agriculture
Israel and Turkey---GREAT
Lebanon and Cyprus—Disrupted by civil war
Jordan and Syria—underdeveloped, improving
Despite war and terrorism, tourism is huge
Who will control it?
Can these people live in peace?
Fundamentalism vs. Secularism
Which will win out?
ARAB GULF STATES
ACTUALLY LIES ON TWO CONTINENTS (EUROPE AND ASIA)
The Dead Sea used to be part of the Mediterranean, but now is cut off from it.
The Dead Sea’s shore is the lowest place on Earth (1312 ft. below sea level)
The Jordan River flows into the Dead Sea
and provides more than 1/2 of Israels water supply
The three major rivers of the region are the Jordan, the Tigris, and the Euphrates
Turkey is on the Anatolian Peninsula
Two major mountain ranges are found in Turkey—The Pontic and Taurus Mountains
The Arabs conquered this region around 600 A.D. and brought Islam to the region.
Jews and Christians living under Roman rule--exiled or persecuted.
The Romans conquered around 200 B.C.
The Hebrews practiced Judaism
About 1000 B.C.-- Hebrews set up a kingdom along the Jordan River
After WWII, these countries became independent
Turkey declared itself an independent country, but countries like Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, and Syria were carved out by United Kingdom and France
Ottoman Empire fought in WWI on the losing side.
1500s-1918, what is now Turkey was the "home" of the Ottoman Empire
Later, the Greeks and then the Romans ruled these areas
The Persian Empire (Iran) -- 550 A.D.-- conquered all of these lands and more
They invented the first written language,
Earliest--SUMER (SUMERIANS)--Later BABYLONIANS and others
They built the worlds first known cities
Soon after-- spread the religion as far west as Spain.
By the time he died, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam.
Worship is done at a MOSQUE
IMAMS are religious leaders
The Qur'an contains Allah's message to Muhammad.
Visited by the Angel Gabriel--told him to preach the word of God (Allah)
Muhammad was born in Mecca
Islam is one of the worlds most practiced religions (1.6 BILLION--23% of the WORLD)
HAJJ (Pilgrimage)- travel to Mecca -- birthplace of the religion
FASTING--Ramadan--food can only be consumed when the sun is down.
ALMS (Charity)-Give to those in need
PRAYER-5 times daily. Face Mecca when doing so.
Bedouins are nomadic farmers who live through-
out the region.
Livestock is usually raised except pigs.
Most people rely on Subsistence
Until 2003, a dictatorship lead by SADDAM HUSSEIN
Tried to invade Iran in 1980 and Kuwait in 1990.
Turmoil and uncertainty today
Gov't controlled by AYATOLLAHS--very powerful
THEOCRACY--Religious law, very anti-west.
Support many terrror organizations and have nuclear technology
Groups like the PLO and HAMAS have organized since then to take Palestine back for the Arabs
Surrounding Arab countries immediately declare war on Israel.
Israel declares independence--1948
In 1947, the UN decided to divide Palestine into Arab and Jewish states--Israel agrees, but Arabs do not
Early 1900's the call for a "Jewish" state (country) increased
Jewish immigration to Palestine increased during the 1930’s and 40’s because of the Holocaust
The Zagros, Elburz, and Hindu Kush Mountains are the largest in the region.
The Red Sea is actually getting wider as plates move apart.
Also causes narrow gulfs and seas.
Causes a mix of rugged mountains, plateaus, and valleys
Many early civilizations (Babylon, Sumer) started here because of the access to water.
The land between these two rivers is called MESOPOTAMIA or the FERTILE CRESCENT
Both flow through IRAQ and into the PERSIAN
The KARUN RIVER is IRAN'S largest river
The Highland areas of this region--more moderate to cold.
The Tigris and Euphrates are a life source to Iraq and Kuwait
Arabian Peninsula -- one of the hottest, driest places on earth (average above 100 degrees)
Rub-al-Khali Desert is known as “The Empty Quarter” since hardly anyone lives there
The region has very few other resources
The oil fields in the Persian Gulf are among the largest in the world
Oil is plentiful, water is not
Others didn't gain ind. until 1960's and1970's
Saudi Arabia and Iraq became ind. in 1932
New areas were controlled and divided up by the European Powers
After WWI, the Empire was defeated and divided up.
Little regard for ethnic/religious differences
Ruled by a group called The TALIBAN until US war there.
Many new freedoms but the TALIBAN still trying to get power back
Resources -- oil, coal, POTASH, and Phosphate
Two Deserts in this Region
The Syrian and the Negev
Most is gone due to farming, herding, shipbuilding, firewood
Highland climates of this region were once covered by forests of cedar, cypress, and pine trees